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Directory of battery technologies and resources that improve the trend toward clean, renewable energy.

In science and technology, an electric battery is a device that stores chemical energy and makes it available in an electrical form. Batteries consist of electrochemical devices such as one or more galvanic cells, fuel cells or flow cells. There are various conventions on the use of "Cell" vs. "battery". Strictly, an electrical "battery" is an interconnected array of one or more similar voltaic cells ("cells"). That distinction, however, is considered pedantic in most contexts (other than the expression dry cell), and in current English usage it is more common to call a single cell used on its own a battery than a cell. The earliest known artifacts that may have been batteries are the Baghdad Batteries, from some time between 250 BCE and 640 CE. The modern development of batteries started with the Voltaic pile developed by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800. The worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales annually (2005 estimate).

"The dead batteries were given out free of charge." -- Tom Swift



  • Batteries, Tech's Choke Point - The biggest chokepoint in technology is a single roadblock: batteries. Amidst all of the amazing advances in the last 50 years, battery tech has remained fundamentally unchanged, engineers incrementally squeezing out a few extra drops of power from old tech each year. (Gizmodo; Aug 27, 2008)


US Govt. had "Endless Battery" technology 50 years ago

Featured on PESWiki

  • Featured: >
    Renaissance Charge Device by Energen - Renaissance Charge is pleased to bring to the marketplace the first radiant battery chargers that radically reduce battery replacement costs while dramatically increasing battery capacity. (PEWiki; Nov. 9, 2008)


  • Transparent Lithium Ion Battery Invented by Stanford Researchers - They may not even know it, but I guess transparent batteries are the dream of every teenager or fancily-dressed girl out there. And the good news is that Yi Cui together with a team from the University of Stanford, have invented such a battery. (The Green Optimistic; Jul. 27, 2011)
  • Lithium Iron Phosphate - Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePO4 Batteries are a safer thermally stable type of rechargeable Lithium-ion battery that is especially suited for electric vehicles because of their high energy density, high discharge rate, long life cycle and inherent safety characteristics.
  • Lithium Iron phosphate - Lithium Iron phosphate, known as LiFepo4, come in different impedance levels and discharge rates. Custom made packs are available.
  • SunCat: Solar Batteries Powered by Sunshine - Knut Karlsen recently unveiled an inspired approach to portable power that can’t be beat for its elegant simplicity: a prototype battery capable of charging itself when exposed to sunshine. His slick set of SunCat C-cells are wrapped in flexible photovoltaic panels and will slowly recharge when left to bask in the sun - just like a cat. (Inhabitat; Feb. 18, 2009)
  • Hybrio rechargeable battery - Hybrio by UniRoss is ready to use out of the package, lasts up to 4x longer than standard alkalines on each charge, holds its charge for months, and can be reused over and over for three-plus years.
  • USBCELL - This NiMH AA cell can be used in normal battery applications and can be recharged simply by plugging into a USB port. No need for a separate charger or cables when travelling. Will be available in other cell formats.
  • H2O Batteries and Products - e.g. Tango Group product line utilizes a water-powered battery that consists of two electrodes made of special alloys, which, when immersed in water, the resulting chemical reaction produces electricity. Simply refill the battery as the water evaporates - typically every 2 to 3 months. The battery has a minimum continuous life of 2 years.
  • Gaia Power Technologies - PowerTower is an advanced battery-based uninterruptible power supply system that is compact, always on, quiet, and reliable. It can provide backup power to a home or business for hours to days and storage for intermittent sources like solar and wind energy.


  • Kennedy Alternative Energy - Offers high discharge rate Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePO4 batteries for electric vehicles and other applications.
  • Falcon Electric bicycles and scooters - Supplies custom made Lithium Iron Phosphate, Lithium Manganese packs, BMS's, Lithium chargers - regular and balancing type for electric transportation and other needs.
  • Featured: >
    Infinite Power Solutions, Inc - Infinite Power Solutions, Inc. (IPS) is the global leader in developing and manufacturing solid-state, rechargeable thin-film micro-energy storage devices (commonly known as thin-film batteries) (MEC™) for a variety of micro-electronic applications. (PESWiki; Dec. 5, 2008)
  • Shen Zhen Bai Guan Battery CO.,Ltd - Leading designer, integrator, and manufacturer of custom rechargeable battery packs and battery chargers that enable portable electronic products to be more dependable, samller, lighter, and longer running.
  • Toyota To Build Green-Car Battery Plants - Toyota Motor Company joins a growing parade of Japanese automakers ramping up production of new batteries to meet growing demand for hybrid vehicles like the Toyota Prius. (Edmunds; May 23, 2008)
  • Nissan, NEC To Invest $115 Million in Battery Plant - Nissan and Japanese electronics giant NEC said they will invest $115 million over the next three years to make advanced lithium-ion batteries for Nissan's future electric vehicles. (Edmunds; May 19, 2008)
  • Will EEStor ceramic battery replace gas engines by 2008? - Texas company is working on an "energy storage" device made from ceramics. It's not technically a battery because it doesn't use chemicals. It can allegedly charge within 5 minutes with enough energy to move a car 500 miles on about $9 worth of electricity -- about 45 cents a gallon.
  • A123 Systems lithium-ion battery technology - A123 replaces the cobalt oxide in lithium-ion cells with nanophosphate, enabling a quick charge, while delivering high power density, with a long life-time. Is used in power tools, and is process of breaking into hybrid vehicle market.
    • A123 Racing - The Hypersonic battery modules sold by A123 Racing contain the new nanotech "phosphate doped" Lithium Ion batteries from parent company A123 Systems. These offer all the benefits of Li-Ion cells without the fire or explosion hazards, and outperform normal LI-Ion cells drastically in many areas such as total power output cycle life and calendar life. The cells can also be found in battery packs for the 36V series of DeWalt power tools.

  • Electro Energy - EEI's Bipolar Nickel Metal Hydride (BNMH) batteries use a flat wafer cell design that can be made in any shape. Wafer cells are stacked one on top of another to create multi-cell batteries, providing 40% more energy and 50% higher power than same weight NiCad. Applications include the gasoline/electric hybrids, electric scooters and automotive 42 volt starting batteries.
  • Ergenics - The Hy-Stor® Segmented Battery is a rechargeable battery being developed for hybrid electric vehicle energy storage. It combines the remarkable energy storage capability of metal hydride alloys with the extraordinary cycle life and discharge rate capabilities of nickel-hydrogen cells. The Hy-Stor battery offers superior performance, economic and safety advantages.
  • Deeya Energy - L-Cells have much better charging and discharging performance while being much cheaper than other batteries, contain environmentally benign materials and are infinitely recyclable. They will enable commercial renewable energy storage, Uninterruptible Power Supply and peak-off-peak Load Shifting.
  • Zinc Matrix Power - High-performance rechargeable silver-zinc batteries offer an extremely high ratio of energy to volume (Wh/l) in applications such as notebook computers, cell phones, and on-body power for military electronics. They provide up to 2X the runtime of lithium-ion battery packs of the same size, are based on intrinsically safe water-based chemistry, and are free from the problems of fire and danger of explosion. Company changed name to ZPower.
    • Apple to pioneer use of Silver-Zinc battery technology? - ZPower has partnered with one of the top global manufacturers of notebook computers to roll out a laptop with the world's first silver-zinc battery option in early 2009. The notebook will also be able to work with lithium-ion batteries. (ComputerWorld; Jan. 4, 2008)
  • Axion Power - The e3 Supercell is a hybrid device that uses a lead-acid battery positive electrode and a supercapacitor negative electrode made of activated carbon. The high power output, rapid recharge (up to 10 times faster), multi-cycle deep discharge capacity, minimal maintenance and low cost, are ideal for electric vehicles and intermittent power sources like wind and solar.
  • Active Grid Technology - AGT has developed a technology that uses ultrasonic energy to increase battery performance by altering the electrochemical conversion process. AGT batteries could be 1/3 to 1/2 the size, not lose efficiency over time, not be as susceptible to cold environments and charge faster at much lower voltages.
  • mPhase Technologies - Will commercialize nanotechnology for inexpensive reserve batteries with unlimited shelf life, miniature size, quick ramp up to full power, and high power and energy density, for military applications, consumer products and advanced systems.
  • Atraverda - Ebonex® Technology ceramic composite electrodes enable bipolar lead-acid batteries to be produced with simpler construction, less lead, lower weight and greatly improved performance levels.
  • Altair Nanotechnologies - The NanoSafe battery with a nano-titanate negative electrode is high powered yet safe from fire or explosion hazards seen in lithium-ion batteries. Tests confirm that after 15,000 deep charge/discharge cycles the cells still retained over 85% of their original charge capacity, allowing 40 years of daily charging for electric vehicles.
  • Technology Research Laboratories - Has developed an inexpensive TRL-CIR (Common Ion Redox) Battery that will operate unattended for an indefinite numbers of cycles. Electrolytes and reagents are simple compounds and complexes of inorganic salts. Suitable for solar and wind energy storage, emergency power, load leveling.
  • New Oak Ridge thin-film battery - Oak Ridge Micro-Energy, a manufacturer of thin film rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, is developing a new battery that operates below 3 V. The company's batteries are intended for applications such as wireless sensors, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, semiconductor non-volatile memory chips, and advanced medical devices. (Inside Greentech; Feb. 27, 2007)
  • Cymbet - High cycle, high energy density thin-film batteries have a very high discharge rate, do not lose power during storage, have unlimited recharge capability, stable chemistry and can be made in any shape or size. The POWER FAB™ battery is a flexible lithium cobalt oxide cell that uses a solid state LiPON electrolyte. Applications include consumer electronics, RFID tags, medical devices and semiconductors.
  • Advanced Battery Technologies - ABAT’s Polymer Lithium-Ion (PLI) batteries for electric vehicles offer a high energy density with quick charge, long usage time, 199 mile range and are non-polluting. There are no liquid electrolytes or leakage problems, they are chemically stable, have no “memory problem", and are full function at temperatures as low as -20 C.
  • Nanotechnology enables increased battery energy density - Nanoexa has a subsidiary in South Korea called Decktron that is making lithium polymer batteries using Nanoexa's new nanocrystalline material to construct the positive battery electrodes. The company is claiming that allows them to achieve an energy density of 3kW/kg, with 3 times lower weight and 20% higher capacity than Li-ion. (AutoblogGreen; Apr. 29, 2007)
  • Advanced Lithium Electrochemistry - Lithium-Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) is the latest cathode material for the Li-ion battery. Although the energy density is lower than Li-Co, its advantage is high safety and shorter charge time. The normal cycle life is 2000 times, which is much greater than Li-Co or Li-Mn battery (only 500 times). It is suitable for high power applications like electric vehicles and power tools.
  • Lead-Acid Battery Developers Targeting Hybrid Applications - Effpower is commercializing ceramic bipolar lead-acid batteries. The partitioning walls are made out of porous, lead-infiltrated ceramic (LIC) plates that have shown high corrosion resistance. A Honda Insight with the Effpower lead-acid battery pack outperformed the OEM NiMH pack in terms of fuel consumption. (Green Car Congress; May 30, 2007)
  • New long range EV battery - Device Conduit Technologies says its DCT RackPack™ Massively Intermoduled Battery (MIB) pack can finally deliver 100 to 300 mile range to electric and hybrid vehicles at affordable prices. Their solution combines off the shelf systems in a novel manner combined with a new technology. (Inside Greentech; Jul. 20, 2007)
  • SCiB electric vehicle battery charges in 5 minutes - Toshiba is entering the electric vehicle battery market next March with the release of the Super Charge ion Battery, or SCiB. It charges 90 percent full in 5 minutes, can last 10 years and loses less than 10 percent efficiency after 3,000 recharges. (AutoblogGreen; Dec. 11, 2007)

Battery Types


  • Storage > Batteries >
    Air-fuelled STAIR battery could last ten times longer than traditional cells - The revolutionary 'STAIR' (St Andrews Air) battery cells are charged in a traditional way but as they are discharged, an open mesh section of battery draws in oxygen from the surrounding air which reacts with a porous carbon component inside the battery, which creates more energy and helps to continually 'charge' the cell as it is being discharged. (Telegraph; UK; May 20, 2010)
  • Storage > Batteries > Air >
    IBM Projects Holographic Phones, Air-Driven Batteries - A survey of 3,000 IBM scientists predicts that by 2015 we will be using mobile phones that will project a 3D holographic image of callers. They have also predicted that batteries would move beyond lithium-ion construction to more energy-dense materials, greatly increasing their power capacity and allowing them to recharge by ‘breathing’ the air around them. (EWeekEurope; December 24, 2010)


  • Algae >
    Algae used to create a quick-charge, lightweight battery - A research team from Uppsala University, Sweden, has recently managed to design a record-breaking "green" lightweight battery that is incredibly easy to produce and could even out the environmental consequences of algae blooms. The battery is produced by coating the algae with a thin layer of polypyrrole. (GizMag; September 13, 2009)




See Directory:Betavoltaics - separate index page

Image:Betavoltaic_battery_95x95.jpg Image:University_of_Missouri_nuclear_decay_battery_95x95.jpg Image:Widetronix_95x95.jpg


  • Self-Assembling Biological Nanobattery - The iron-containing protein, ferritin, can hold either a positive or negative charge, and it self-assembles relatively easily into a uniform nanolayer. NASA has filed a patent to create one layer of one charge, then cover it with another layer of the opposite charge. NASA reckons its battery is not only stable and robust, but can be produced easily and quickly too. (New Scientist Tech; July 16, 2007)
  • Powerful Batteries That Assemble Themselves - MIT researchers are developing low-cost manufacturing methods based on the rapid reproduction of viruses. Designer viruses coat themselves with inorganic materials, which are doped at regular intervals with gold to enhance their conductivity. Then the coated viruses line up on top of a polymer sheet that serves as the electrolyte. (MIT Technology Review; Sept. 28, 2006)
  • Viruses Engineered to Construct Batteries - Researchers at MIT have modified the M13 virus to create very small batteries. With the viruses building wires 6 nanometers in diameter, the research team hopes to build batteries that range from the size of a grain of rice up to the size of existing hearing-aid batteries. (EurekAlert; Apr. 6, 2006) (See Slashdot discussion)


See Directory:Capacitors

  • Storage > Capacitors / Batteries / Tesla Motors >
    Tesla CEO: Super-capacitors Trump Electric Car Batteries - Unlike batteries, supercapacitors do not lose the ability to store charge with age. Supercapacitors also have a much higher power density than batteries, and they can provide power far more quickly than existing battery technology. And they can supply up to 95% of the energy used to charge it on discharging. (AllCarsElectric; March 24, 2011)

Car Bodies as Batteries

  • Storage > Batteries >
    Car Bodies Could Store Energy Like Batteries (Video) - Researchers at the Imperial College in London are developing a new material that can store and release electrical energy like a battery. Once perfected, scientists hope the substance will replace standard car bodies, making vehicles up to 15 percent lighter and significantly extending the range of electric vehicles. (Inhabitat; Feb. 8, 2010) (Also Engadget)

Dual Carbon

  • Dual Carbon Fast-Charging Battery - The Dual Carbon Battery developed by Power Japan Plus is balancing the energy storage equation of performance, cost, reliability and safety. (Free Energy Blog; May 22, 2014)

Carbon Foam

  • Firefly's Oasis batteries getting some EV fans excited - Firefly's newest deep-discharge battery, called the Oasis Group 31, is on target for a summer release date. It promises to double EV range, quadruple battery life, and weigh less too. Microcell™ foam technology resists sulfation and corrosion, increases energy capacity, recharges faster, and has deeper discharge capability. (AutoblogGreen; Jan. 25, 2008) Video
  • Firefly selects manufacturing partners - Firefly Energy announced manufacturing partnerships for its innovative carbon-graphite foam lead acid battery, that offers high performance, extremely low weight and low cost. It can be both manufactured as well as recycled within the existing lead acid battery industry’s vast infrastructure. (Green Car Congress; May 11, 2007)

Carbon Nanotubes

  • Nanotech / Batteries >
    Carbon Nanotube Batteries Pack More Punch - Carbon nanotubes are attractive materials for battery-making because of their high surface area, which can accept more positive ions and potentially last longer than conventional batteries. Instead of this design, researchers at MIT have introduced something new — using chemically modified carbon nanotubes as the positive ion source themselves. (Science; June 20, 2010)

Copper Antimonide Nanowires

  • Featured: Nanotech / Storage > Batteries > Solid State >
    Prieto Battery Offers 1000x Power Density - Amy Prieto of Colorado State University is developing a new battery technology that utilizes copper antimonide nanowires, and an ultra thin polymer electrolyte. Once fully developed, the battery is expected to offer a huge increase in power density, a reduction in the time it takes to charge, and almost unlimited recharge cycles. (PESN and BeforeItsNews; August 24, 2011)

Earth Batteries

  • Earth Batteries - Almost any liquid or moist object that has enough ions to be electrically conductive can serve as the electrolyte for a cell; but they are of no real practical use, because they produce far less current—and cost far more per unit of energy generated—than commercial cells. (PESWiki)
  • Arie M. De Geus' AMDG Scientific Corp - The late Mr. DeGeus discovered novel energy generating technologies, all of which feature ‘over-unity’ energy production, relating to fractional hydrogen, low-energy nuclear transmutations, electrodynamics, torsion fields and electro-gravitics.
  • Free-Energy Battery Inventor Killed at Airport? - Official statement cites "natural causes" but others familiar with the disruptive potential of the inventor's technology to the existing power structure consider it a probable assassination. (PESN; Dec. 5, 2007)
  • The Secret of Crystal Units - Recently a crystal unit running in continuous mode exceeded 3000 mAh electrical charge that was sent through a 910 Ohm resistor. The achieved result outperforms the biggest available NiMH Akkumulator of baby cell size on the market which can deliver up to 2900 mAh. (ZPEnergy; Oct. 23, 2006)
  • Electrinium ZPE Battery Still Remains Just an Idea - Theoretical battery proposed in 1980 would consist of an alloy of two different metals that induces the atoms to give off the Zero Point Energy as electrons. So far, no one has built this device. (PESN; Dec. 6, 2007)



  • Featured: Batteries > Graphene >
    Graphene 3D Lab unveils first 3D-printed graphene battery - Graphene can be easily mixed with thermoplastics commonly used in FDM 3D printer. The company is working on designing a mixture of plastics and graphene that can be turned into nanocomposite material filament. The graphene-enhanced materials can be used within any standard FDM 3D printers to fabricate a functioning battery... (PESN; October 25, 2014)
  • Thermal Electric / Batteries >
    Graphene in new ‘battery’ breakthrough? - Researchers at Hong Kong Polytechnic University claim to have invented a new kind of graphene-based "battery" that runs solely on ambient heat. The device is said to capture the thermal energy of ions in a solution and convert it into electricity. Such a device might find use in a range of applications, including powering artificial organs, generating renewable energy and powering electronics. (PhysicsWorld; March 8, 2012)

Karpen's Pile


  • Featured / Best Exotic: Nuclear > Cold Fusion / Batteries >
    ARL announces a one-kilowatt cold fusion system - Chilean inventor, Nelson Camus, of Atomic Remediation Labs (ARL) in California allegedly ran his house for three years back in the late 1990s on a solar generator supplemented by cold fusion technology involving lead acid batteries. Now he's apparently willing to release such a unit for sale under beta testing terms. (PESN; November 2, 2010)

Liquid Metal

  • Featured: Batteries > Utility-Scale >
    Donald Sadowy's Liquid Batteries - Liquid Metal Battery Corporation, founded by an MIT professor and his students, is commercializing a battery technology for grid-scale energy storage. Their battery uses magnesium in the top layer and Antimony in the bottom layer, divided by a liquid salt layer. (PESWiki; April 17, 2012)


See separate directory pages:

Image:Compact_Power_95x95.jpg Image:Stanford nanowire Li-on 95x95.jpg Image:Li-Tec_battery_95x95.jpg Image:EnerDel_lithium_battery_95x95.jpg Image:LTC_GAIA_95x95.jpg Image:Toshiba_Li-ion.jpg

  • Lithium-sulfur batteries could store triple the power of lithium-ion - A research team from the University of Waterloo has synthesized a prototype of a lithium-sulphur rechargeable battery that, thanks to its peculiar nanoscale structure, can store three times the power of a conventional lithium-ion battery in the same volume while being significantly lighter and potentially cheaper to manufacture. (GizMag; June 10, 2009)



Microbial Fuel Cells

  • Microbial Fuel Cells - Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a completely new method of renewable energy recovery: the direct conversion of organic matter (e.g. sewage waste) to electricity using bacteria. The method is highly efficient and produces a high volume of hydrogen.

Molten Metal Batteries

  • Newsletters > Future Energy eNews > Flight / Batteries / ZPE / Events >
    Future Energy eNews: July 2010 - Tom Valone's headlines this month include: 1) New Proton Measurement Throws Physics a Curve; 2) Molten Metal Batteries Yield 20 times More Current; 3) The Flying Prius; 4) Clean Energy 101; 5) COFE4 - SPESIF Call for Papers -- a great opportunity for inventors who would like a chance to put their invention on paper in a peer-reviewed publication.

Nickel Cadmium

  • NiCads - They use nickel hydroxide Ni(OH)2 for the positive electrode (cathode), cadmium Cd as the negative electrode (anode) and an alkaline potassium hydroxide KOH electrolyte.Once the battery of choice for low power portable products they have lost market share to the newer Nickel Metal Hydride batteries.

Nickel Iron

  • Storage > Batteries > Nickel Iron >
    Thomas Edison's nickel-iron battery gets 21st-century makeover, could power electric cars - The nickel-iron battery, originally conceived by Edison over a century ago, is back and better than ever thanks to scientists at Stanford. The upgraded battery can be recharged in around two and half minutes, as opposed to several hours at present, and discharges in under 30 seconds, which could make it a boon for the renewable-energy industry and also help power cars as Edison originally envisaged. (NY Daily News; June 28, 2012)
  • BeUtilityFree - Nickel Iron batteries are environmentally friendly and are the most suitable choice for home power systems. They have the longest life of any battery, efficiency stays about 80% throughout its life time, they do not sulfate, don't freeze, and are easily rejuvenated by a simple electrolyte change. No need to do frequent equalization changes as you have to do with lead acid batteries.

Nickel Metal Hydride

  • NiMH - Nickel-metal-hydride batteries are related to sealed nickel-cadmium batteries and only differ from them in that instead of cadmium, hydrogen is used as the active element at a hydrogen-absorbing negative electrode (anode). This electrode is made from a metal hydride usually alloys of lanthanum and rare earths that serve as a solid source of reduced hydrogen that can be oxidized to form protons. The electrolyte is alkaline potassium hydroxide. The NiMH battery was patented in 1986 by Stanford Ovshinsky, founder of Ovonics.

Nickel Zinc

  • Batteries > Nickel Zinc >
    PowerGenix Introduces NiZn Cells for HEV Market - PowerGenix introduced its nickel-zinc (NiZn) rechargeable D cells for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in a retrofitted Toyota Prius. NiZn packs can deliver 30% more power and increased energy density, as well as reduced size, weight and cost relative to existing Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMH) technologies. (Green Car Congress; May 15, 2008)
  • Batteries > Nickel Zinc >
    Xellerion has developed a rechargeable Nickel-Zinc battery that has solved the dendrite formation problem, thereby unleashing Nickel-Zinc battery's superior electrochemical potential of both high power and high energy, for applications such as electric and hybrid vehicles.
  • PowerGenix - High density, high cycle-life and low-cost environmentally friendly Nickel-zinc (NiZn) rechargeable batteries are specifically designed for DC-powered products that demand high discharge rate performance. The benefits over traditional nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and lead-acid batteries include: Up to 75% lighter; Up to 10 times more powerful; Up to 30% smaller.


  • Batteries > Paper / Alt Fuels > Biomass > R&D >
    Sony demos paper-fueled battery - Sony recently showed off a new bio-cell battery that breaks down paper in order to create power. The process starts with an enzyme suspended in water. When paper is dropped in, the enzyme starts to break it down and produce glucose that can then be harvested and used to power a battery. (GizMag; December 21, 2011)
  • Nanotech >
    Batteries Made from Regular Paper - A group of Stanford University researchers have shown that ordinary paper can be turned into a battery electrode simply by dipping it into carbon-nanotube inks. The resulting electrodes, which are strong, flexible, and highly conductive, might be used to make cheap energy storage devices to power portable electronics. (MIT Technology Review; Dec. 9, 2009)


  • A Quantum Leap in Battery Design - A "digital quantum battery" concept proposed by a physicist at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign could provide a dramatic boost in energy storage capacity over lithium ion batteries by several orders of magnitude. The concept calls for billions of nanoscale capacitors. (MIT Technology Review; December 21, 2009) ('PhysOrg)


  • A Salt and Paper Battery - Researchers at Uppsala University in Sweden have made a flexible battery using two common, cheap ingredients: cellulose and salt. The lightweight, rechargeable battery uses thin pieces of paper--pressed mats of tangled cellulose fibers--for electrodes, while a salt solution acts as the electrolyte. The simple, non-polluting battery could be used in compact devices. (MIT Technology Review; September 15, 2009)

Semi-Solid Flow Cell

  • Storage > Batteries > Semi-Solid Flow Cell >
    New battery design could give electric vehicles a jolt - A radically new approach to the design of batteries, developed by researchers at MIT, could provide a lightweight and inexpensive alternative to existing batteries for electric vehicles and the power grid. The technology could even make “refueling” such batteries as quick and easy as pumping gas into a conventional car. (MIT; June 6, 2011)


  • Nanotech >
    Longer-Running Electric-Car Batteries - In an advance that could help electric vehicles run longer between charges, researchers at Stanford University and Hanyang University in Ansan, Korea, have shown that silicon nanotube electrodes can store 10 times more charge than the conventional graphite electrodes used in lithium-ion batteries. (MIT Technology Review; Sept. 23, 2009)
  • Silicone batteries by Guineng - Using silicate salt is used as electrolyte, Guineng batteries "have enormous and durable power and are pollution free." They have high capacity, high current output, rapid recharge time, low temperature performance, long life span, and environment-friendliness.

Update: December 28, 2007

"I have tracked developments closely on this technology over this period. The Guineng company never responded to emails or phone calls. It turns out that the Guineng company was engaged in patent infringement and there was a legal battle and the original company, Greensaver is now supplying product in China and internationally. I live and work in China and am in contact now with Greensaver and preparing to order and test a small quantity of batteries from their distributor in my state. There are some tests also ongoing by various electric scooter users in the US.


Batteries & Chargers

As soon as pricing is available I will post detailed info regarding this silicone battery technology. Our company is in a good position to test these batteries for performance in cold weather since we are located in Manchuria. If these batteries live up to their claims on the website, there is a good chance that we can have a significant candidate for EV cars and scooters, etc."

Contact E-Mail:

Timothy Shell


  • Silv er Oxide - Silver oxide batteries have a long life and very high energy/weight ratio, but a prohibitive cost for most applications due to the high price of silver. They are available in either very small sizes as button cells where the amount of silver used is small and not a significant contributor to the overall product costs, or in large custom design batteries where the superior performance characteristics of the silver oxide chemistry outweigh cost considerations.

Sodium Sulphur

  • Fixing the Power Grid - American Electric Power deployed a huge NGK sodium-sulfur battery as part of a demonstration project that will fight blackouts and could make renewable power economically viable. AEP set goals of having 25 megawatts of storage in place by 2010, and 40 times that by 2020. (MIT Technology Review; Oct. 17, 2007)

Solid State

See Directory:Solid State Batteries - separate page. (Batteries in which both the electrodes and the electrolyte are solid-state materials)


Super Capacitor Batteries

  • Nanotechnology / Solar / Batteries >
    New nano-material could lead to self-washing windows and solar panels - Researchers from Tel Aviv University have discovered a new nanomaterial that can repel dust and water and could provide a self-cleaning coating for windows or solar panels. The new material is made up of molecules of peptides that “grow” to resemble small forests of grass. The coating also acts as a super-capacitor, thereby possibly providing an energy boost to batteries. (GizMag; December 3, 2009)
  • Kept Under Secret: New Type of Super Batteries - Unofficial sources have said that it’s all about a super capacitor, able to take much more greater charges than usual Li-Ion batteries can do in present days. Actually, they’ll even charge faster and have the ability to release power much more quickly when needed. The new super batteries will never lose their charge capacities, so that would make them man’s best friend in everything, from powering your mp3 to powering your car. Ideally, you’ll only have to purchase one battery of a certain size suited to your applications, and it’ll recharge as many times as you wish.
  • Nanotechnology / Batteries >
    Nanotech Batteries For A New Energy Future - Researchers at the Maryland NanoCenter at the University of Maryland have developed new systems for storing electrical energy derived from alternative sources that are, in some cases, 10 times more efficient than what is commercially available. (ScienceDaily; March 22, 2009)
  • Canadian Firm Develops Fast-Charge Ultra-Cap 'Battery' - EPOD International is developing a revolutionary new hybrid battery that can be charged in less than one minute and fully cycled over 100,000 times. It combines the high energy density of batteries with the high power density of capacitors, is not made from rare or expensive elements and is environmentally benign. (EV World; May 10, 2007)


  • Featured / DIY: Water / Batteries >
    Dicken's Magnesium-Water-Copper Battery - Stephen Dickens' H2O Battery/Generator using Mg and Cu Electrodes with Foam Insulator is a lot bigger than an AA, but is cheap and easy to build. Though probably not unique, it is noteworthy given its simplicity. A kindergartener could build this and afford to buy the parts needed. (PESWiki; December 24, 2014)


  • Paper Batteries in Cosmetics - “Enfucell", a Finland-based company, has developed a flexible thin battery named “SoftBattery". This 0.3 – 1.0 millimeter battery (1.5 or 3.0 V) can produce a peak electric current of 4mA/cm². Enfucell was founded in 2002, after nearly ten years of research on power sources for low-power application conducted at the Automation Laboratory of the Helsinki University of Technology. The SoftBattery has several interesting applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and logistics industries. (The Green Optimistic)
  • Weaving Batteries into Clothes - A novel machine that makes nanostructured fibers could be the key to a new generation of military uniforms that take on active functions such as generating (e.g. solar) and storing energy. (MIT Technology Review; Oct. 9, 2007)

Xenon and Fluoride

Zinc Air

  • ReVolt Technology - Rechargeable Zinc-air batteries have more than twice as much energy as conventional Li-ion batteries, they cost less to manufacture, are safer to use, and are environmentally friendly. They are suitable for consumer electronics - mobile phones, laptop computers, digital cameras, etc.
    • New rechargeable zinc-air batteries coming soon - A new breed of rechargeable zinc-air batteries by Swiss company, ReVolt, is soon to be available, and may replace lithium-ion batteries in cell phones, laptops and other consumer items. Lithium-ion batteries store only a third of the energy and cost around twice as much as the new batteries. (PhysOrg; Oct. 29, 2009)
  • PAC Zinc Air Fuel Cells - Power Air Corporation's Zinc Air Fuel Cell offers an alternative to batteries, generators, and hydrogen fuel cells, producing zero emission energy for portable, stationary, light mobility, and transportation applications. ZAFC technology is low cost with all the advantages of batteries and engines, without the disadvantages. (The Energy Blog; May 2, 2007)
  • eVionyx - development of an inexpensive, metal-air, Revolutionary Power Cell (RPC™) technology capable of meeting all of the requirements of the ideal energy source.
  • Fuel Cells > Powerzinc Electric - Dynamic Quick-refuel Fuel Cells (DQFC) are high power, high energy, long-lasting, low cost and environment-friendly zinc-air fuel cells for electric vehicles. The company is developing an all-Electric passenger car with a range of 400 km and a fast refuel service platform.


  • Nanotechnology >
    Printable batteries - For a long time, batteries were bulky and heavy. Now, a new cutting-edge battery by Fraunhofer ENAS is revolutionizing the field. It is thinner than a millimeter, lighter than a gram, and can be produced cost-effectively through a printing process. (PhysOrg; July 2, 2009)
  • EV > Plug-in Hybrids >
    'Plugless' Plug-In Hybrid Car - A British automotive design, development and certification consultancy, has come up with removable battery packs that can be swapped for full batteries that have been charged from the grid. The prototype achieve 53 mpg (4.4 L/100km), with a charge time of 30 minutes, and range of 15 miles (25 kilometers) in electric-only mode. (TreeHugger; Apr. 24, 2008)
  • Porous Power Technologies - Highly porous, microstructured battery components offer dramatic improvements in lithium-ion battery performance and cycle life. PPT offers up to 50% faster charge times, up to 4 times capacity under heavy load, and much longer cycle life for batteries.
  • Engine on a chip promises to best the battery - MIT researchers are putting a tiny gas-turbine engine inside a silicon chip about the size of a quarter. The resulting device could run 10 times longer than a battery of the same weight can. (MIT News; Sept. 18, 2006)
  • Urine-Powered Battery - Singapore physicists create first paper battery that generates electricity from urine. Technology is an ideal match for cheap, disposable healthcare test-kits. (PESN; Aug. 16, 2005)
  • Utility Scale Batteries - ...have finally reached a point of technological development in which they can be integrated into the grid to ensure a constant power supply. This development will affect the entire alternative energy field, as large amounts of electricity generated by alternatives means from solar to wind can be stored in large quantities and used when necessary. (PESWiki; March 25, 2005)
  • Europositron's Super Batteries - Patented technology based on nanoscale electrochemistry will allow production of rechargeable Aluminum batteries providing up to 20 times more power than present batteries. The materials are environmentally safe and fully recyclable.
  • Giant Aluminium batteries are for real - Ab Europositron Oy has been conferred the prestigious 2005 Frost & Sullivan Technology Innovation of the Year Award in the field of battery technologies, "in particular, its design and development of aluminium rechargeable batteries using innovative nanoscale electrochemistry technology." (ZPEnergy; March 23, 2005)
  • SION Power - Developing a new generation of rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries for mobile electronics and electric vehicles. Improves capacity, operating temperature and discharge rate, at comparable price. (Thanks John Coviello)
  • New Rechargeable Battery - Zinc Matrix Power Inc. has developed high-performance rechargeable alkaline batteries. Holding ten key patents, ZMP's batteries appear to exceed both the energy and power per volume of other available rechargeable battery chemistries. (ZPEnergy; Oct. 26, 2004)
  • Magnesium battery patents - Stefan compares Aurbach and Matsushita patents, including "how easy they are to reproduce in your garage." (ZPEnergy; Aug. 25)
  • Sonne Ward's Battery Charger System - Rapid charge produces no gassing, no heat; old batteries refurbished; battery life extended; holds charge longer; price is cheaper; level of market acceptability still lacking.

Battery Reconditioning and Recycling

See Directory:Battery Reconditioning and Recycling - separate index page



See Directory:Battery Chargers

Research and Development

  • Physicist develops battery using new source of energy - Researchers have been able to prove the existence of a "spin battery," a battery that is "charged" by applying a large magnetic field to nano-magnets in a device called a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The new technology is a step towards the creation of computer hard drives with no moving parts, which would be much faster, less expensive and use less energy than current ones. (PhysOrg; March 11, 2009)
  • Fuel Cells >
    Micro Fuel Cells Get Closer to Replacing Batteries - A team of researchers in France has developed micro-sized direct methanol fuel cells (microDMFC) that achieve significantly improved fuel efficiency and maintain a good power density while operating at room temperature. The energy density (measured in watt-hours per liter) of the new fuel cells is 385 Wh/L, which is superior to lithium ions batteries’ value of 270 Wh/L. (PhysOrg; Nov. 17, 2008)
  • Taiwanese Chlorophyll Battery - Works With Any Liquid! - Chungpin Hovering Liao from Graduate School of Electro-Optic and Material Science of National Formosa University in central Taiwan discovered a battery that he claims to be the world’s first chlorophyll organic battery. He says his battery can be filled up with almost anything, including water and urine, and it can provide electricity from two to seven days.
  • Batteries / Magnets >
    New spintronics effect could lead to magnetic batteries - Researchers in Japan have discovered that heating one side of a magnetized nickel-iron rod causes electrons to rearrange themselves according to their spins. This so-called "spin Seebeck effect" could lead to batteries that generate magnetic currents, rather than electric currents. (PhysOrg; Oct. 10, 2008)
  • MIT engineers work toward cell-sized batteries - Forget 9-volts, AAs, AAAs or D batteries: The energy for tomorrow’s miniature electronic devices could come from tiny microbatteries about half the size of a human cell and built with viruses. (PhysOrg; Aug. 20, 2008)
  • UltraBattery Passes Testing - A hybrid electric test vehicle equipped with a CSIRO UltraBattery system recently passed 100,000 miles (161,000 km) on the test track. The UltraBattery combines an asymmetric supercapacitor and a lead acid battery in a single unit, creating a hybrid battery that lasts 4x longer, produces 50% more power and is 70% cheaper. (Green Car Congress; Jan. 17, 2007)
  • Ultracapacitors Soon to Replace Batteries? - The synergy between batteries and capacitors — two of the sturdiest and oldest components of electrical engineering — has been growing to the point where ultracapacitors may soon be almost as indispensable to portable electricity as batteries are now. (IEEE Spectrum; Nov. 2007) (See also Slashdot)
  • A Non-Toxic, Paper Battery / Supercapacitor - Researchers at Rensselaer have developed a new energy storage device that resembles a simple sheet of black paper. The nanoengineered battery is lightweight, ultra thin, completely flexible, and geared toward meeting the trickiest design and energy requirements of tomorrow’s gadgets, implantable medical equipment, and transportation vehicles. (Renssalaer; Aug. 13, 2007) (See Slashdot discussion)
  • Nanotube Super Capacitor Battery - MIT researchers are developing a battery based on capacitors that utilize nanotubes for high surface area, enabling near instantaneous charging and no degradation. Estimating ~5 years to commercialization.
  • Tel Aviv Nano Battery - Nano battery developed at the University of Tel Aviv in Israel, is as thick as a strand of hair and holds up under extreme heat.
  • Russians Harness Star Power in New Battery - Russian scientists from the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research have invented a battery based on a new substance that allegedly can capture energy not only from the sun, but also from the stars.
  • Tritium Batteries - The BetaBatt Direct Energy Conversion battery is not based on chemical reaction. Instead, it relies on the decay of the hydrogen isotope tritium. This continuous emission of electrons is the key to the ever-present charge in BetaBatteries. Tritium has a half-life of 12.3 years, so after 12.3 years, its output is half its original charge. (PC Magazine)
  • Electrokinetic microchannel battery - Researchers found a way to exploit the natural electrical properties of a liquid, such as ordinary tap water, as it flows across a surface, the first time since 1839 that a new electric principle has been used to generate a current. If the mechanics can be improved, water plants could use the technology to generate electricity. (University of Alberta; Winter 2003-2004)

Nanotube Ultracapacitors

  • MIT researchers introduce nanotech battery - Nanotube ultracapacitors would store energy on atomic level, providing what is said to be the first technologically significant and economically viable alternative to conventional batteries in more than 200 years. (PESN; Feb. 9, 2006)
  • Discovery Could Increase Power of Ultracapacitors - MIT laboratories have announced that they can improve ultracapacitors by swapping in carbon nanotubes which would increase the ability to store energy and increase the surface area of electrodes, making them comparable to batteries used in hybrids. (TreeHugger; Feb. 16, 2006)
  • Carbon nanotubes set to improve performance of ultracapacitors - Analysis shows that the utilization of a matrix of vertically aligned CNTs as electrode structure, can lead to an ultracapacitor characterized by a power density greater than 100kW/kg (three orders of magnitude higher than batteries), a lifetime longer than 300,000 cycles, and an energy density higher than 60Wh/kg. (MIT Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems)


PES Directories

  • Vanadium Redox Batteries Directory - The vanadium redox battery stores energy in a liquid electrolyte. It is a low cost, low environmental impact battery that has a superior deep cycling life and can be mechanically refuelled in minutes. It can be charged and discharged simultaneously. Applications include geen energy storage, backup power, electric vehicles and utility load levelling / peak shaving.
  • Utility Scale Batteries Directory - Recent developments indicate that utility scale batteries have finally reached a point of technological development in which they can be intergrated into the grid in select applications to ensure a constant power supply. This development will affect the entire alternative energy field, as large amounts of electricity generated by alternatives means from solar to wind to any alternative power source, can be stored in large quantities and used when necessary.
  • Lithium Ion Batteries Directory - Lithium Ion Batteries are one of the more promising battery technologies. Ovonics is the leading producer of Lithium Ion Batteries. Their batteries offer electric cars a 180 mile per charge range. Recenlty, Toshiba announced a breakthrough in Lithium Ion Battery technology that promises much faster recharge times (1 minute for 80% recharge) and denser power densisities. If this announcement lives up to their claims, a 200+ miles per charge car battery is likely.
  • Lithium Sulphur Batteries Directory - A derivative of the Lithium Ion Battery is the Lithium Sulphur Battery, which could potentially deliver a 300+ miles per charge car batteries for electric vehicles. The Lithium Sulphur Battery results from a unique merging of sulfur and lithium chemistries. The high electrochemical potential of lithium is combined with sulfur (Li-S) to attain superior rechargeable performance.
  • Silver Polymer Batteries Directory - The Silver Polymer Battery utilizes divalent silver oxide to achieve very high energy and power, yielding up to twice the energy to volume of current lithium ion and lithium polymer batteries. The gravimetric storage density for Silver Polymer Batteries is about the same as lithium ion batteries, but the volumetric energy density is much greater, because the materials are far denser than those in lithium batteries.
  • Proton Polymer Batteries Directory - Applying a large current in traditional batteries causes the phenomenon known as voltage drop, reducing the capacity dramatically. On the other hand, a Proton Polymer Battery is capable of supporting the large current required for higher-performance devices. In addition, due to its long service life, it essentially does not need to be replaced. And, as it does not contain hazardous materials, there is no need to recycle a proton polymer battery when it is comes to discarding it.
  • Flywheels Directory - A flywheel is a mechanical battery (a mechanical means of storing energy - simply a mass rotating about an axis). Flywheels store energy mechanically in the form of kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is energy of motion. The kinetic energy of an object is the energy it possesses because of its motion. As energy is transferred into a flywheel, as it spins, it builds up kinetic energy that can be released when necessary.
  • Capacitors Directory - A capacitor is similiar to a battery in that it is a medium for storing electrical energy. However, a capacitor is a much simpler device than a battery, it cannot produce new electrons -- it only stores them. Capacitors that are scaled up to power levels required for deliving power to vehicles and the utility grid are known as ultracapacitors.
  • Earth Batteries - Almost any liquid or moist object that has enough ions to be electrically conductive can serve as the electrolyte for a cell; but they are of no real practical use, because they produce far less current—and cost far more per unit of energy generated—than commercial cells.

PES Projects dealing with batteries

  • Bedini SG - Motor and battery energizer plans posted, allegedly tapping radiant energy. Charges batteries from battery input, but turns out to not be over unity.

Other Directories

  • - Battery University™ offers practical battery information to engineers, educators, media, students and battery users alike. The articles address different battery chemistries, advise on best battery choice and discuss how to extend battery life. (Battery University)
  • Battery Technology - A visual directory of battery technology websites. (
  • - The site contains a comprehensive knowledge base about battery technology, battery applications, chargers and ancillary equipment.
  • Wikipedia:Battery_(electricity
  • - Directory of all things pertaining to batteries, from research and development to batteries now on the market. Includes sections on Tesla wireless technology. List your site there.

Battery Reference Works

Battery Down Sides

  • Rare-Earth Metals Shortage Could Slow Green Innovation - Will rare earth components of the electric vehicle system -- included in the batteries, electronics, and motors -- create a "peak x" phenomenon? Will we have enough dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, and terbium? (EcoGeek; Sept. 1, 2009)

Battery Articles

  • Advanced Battery Market Review - A quick perspective puts the size of the conventional lead-acid battery somewhere between $30-40 billion, while the lithium ion market is estimated at $6 billion and doubling every year. And while interest in lithium tends to overshadow nickel metal hydride (NiMH), the latter will continue to play a strong roll in certain HEV applications, Brodd contends. Video (EVWorld; July 2, 2008)
  • Plug-in Car Tech's Race to Production - Flashy concepts and expensive, limited edition sports cars have made the plug-in car market an attractive one. Now major car companies from Detroit to Japan are outsourcing for chemistry and spending big bucks in-house to put low-cost, high-power packs of lithium-ion in larger production fleets by 2010 or 2011. (Popular Mechanics; Feb. 6, 2008)
  • Saft Adds Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery - Saft has added a new lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) technology to its product line-up, from supplier Phostech. The performance will be 20% - 30% inferior to its premier product based on a LiNiCoAlO2 cathode, but its good thermal stability can limit the explosive outcome resulting from severe abuse. (Green Car Congress; Apr. 25, 2007)
  • Flexible ‘organic radical’ battery - Japanese scientists have made a paper-like, organic polymer film rechargeable battery that is around 200 nanometres thick. It only takes one minute to fully charge and is good for 1,000 recharge cycles. It could be used for electronic devices and electric vehicles. (PhysOrg; Mar. 19, 2007)
  • All Cell Plug-in Escape Hybrid - All Cell Technologies is testing a converted Ford Escape Hybrid designed to double the fuel efficiency without altering the original controller. They added a li-ion battery pack that utilizes a passive thermal management system using phase change material (PCM), solving lithium's problem of heat release. (Green Car Congress; Mar. 14, 2007)
  • Hybrid battery will cut energy use - A new hybrid battery can charge and discharge simultaneously, and cuts energy use up to 27% due to lower requirement for electro motor force (EMF). It can be adapted to any size battery, from cell phones and vehicles to utility storage. (Cape Times; Mar. 12, 2007) (Thanks Keelynet)
  • Pee Powered Battery - Scientists soaked a piece of paper in a solution of copper chloride, sandwiched it between strips of magnesium and copper and laminated it in plastic. When a drop of urine is added to the paper through a slit in the plastic, a chemical reaction takes place that produces about 1.5 volts of electricity, the same as a standard AA battery, for about 90 minutes. (TreeHugger; Mar. 1, 2007)
  • Thin Film Batteries 40 Times More Efficient - Micro-generation of energy is set to bring a worldwide economic revolution brought by the availability of thin film batteries that are more fuel-efficient, charge within minutes, and hold a charge 40 times longer than existing batteries. Thin film batteries can be charged from renewable energy sources and used to power the home and car. (Nanotechnology Now; Feb. 19, 2007)
  • Safer, Longer-Lasting Batteries - Thin-film technology is still expensive, but it could soon run remote sensors and medical implants--and one day electric vehicles. These new batteries replace the liquid or gel electrolyte with thin layers of solid glass-like or polymer materials, which are more stable, and have the potential to significantly increase storage capacity. (MIT Technology Review; Sept. 19, 2006)
  • Brown engineers build a better battery -- with plastic - It's thin, light, flexible -- and plastic. Brown University engineers have created a prototype polymer-based battery that packs more power than a standard alkaline battery and more storage capacity than a double-layered capacitor. (PESN; Sept. 14, 2006)

Understanding Batteries

In the News

See News:Batteries - separate page


See Discussion page

Comments about the nature of batteries

  • Peukert Effect - Basically states that there is an exponential relationship between current draw and battery capacity: the more current drawn from the battery, the less capacity it has to power that load. The effect is a little more amplified in lead acid batteries over NiCd and NMH batteries. (Jim, Dec 28, 2004)
  • Lithium Cell Warning! - There is a high risk of leakage, fire or explosion if you overcharge a Li-Ion cell or it shorts due to internal circuitry failing or carelessness.

HomePower Magazine Info on Batteries

-- from RS


  • - 10% off entire selection with coupon code: SS10 at checkout.
  • - For batteries, chargers, adapters and other electronics. All of our batteries are max capacity rechargeable, we don't sell alkaline.
  • Wholesale Battery at CKB Products - Buy wholesale batteries and battery products from leading wholesale distributor. We carry batteries, electronics and over 1,000 general merchandise products at or below wholesale costs.
  • - BatteryCentury provides laptop battery, laptop ac adapter and digital battery for most popular brand dell, apple, hp, sony, toshiba, canon etc.

Raw Materials Sourcing


  • Europositron Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries - Technology based on nanoscale electrochemistry will allow production of rechargeable aluminum batteries providing up to 20 times more capacity than current batteries. The materials are environmentally safe and fully recycleable. 1-2 years to market. [Evidence of Fraud presented on Nov. 7, 2007]

See Also






- Other Directory listingsLatestA-IJ-RS-ZTreeNews
- PESWiki home page

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