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Directory:Cavitation Heaters

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Cavitation heaters are simply devices that transfer mechanical energy into thermal energy in a working fluid. A common design amounts to a very inefficient centrifugal pump. The energy conversion in a cavitation heater has well known advantages in industrial applications where the working fluid can be damaged by contact with heating elements with a significant temperature differential (for example some food processing and chemical processing applications), where there some constituents of the fluid may come out of solution on a heat transfer surface (as in mineralization in water heaters and boilers) or where on-demand heating is needed (as in water for residential or commercial uses). Established commercial vendors serve these industrial markets.

"Cavitation" refers to the formation of bubbles in the fluid so that the impeller is working in a mixed phase (liquid with gas bubbles) environment. Pumps are not typically designed for mixed phase flow (in fact it will destroy them). Cavitation heaters on the other hand are often designed to induce mixed phase flow as part of the agitation of the fluid that results in the thermal conversion.

In commercial cavitation heaters the mechanical energy driving the heater, the Input energy (for example the motor driving the heater),is slightly less than the thermal energy resulting in the fluid the Output Energy(as seen in the rise in temperature). This is because of the conservation of Energy in the conversion of mechanical to thermal energy with the slight loss (typically less than 1 percent) in conversion accounted for in well understood inefficiencies in the conversion.

Some cavitation heater inventors and company's claim that the output of thermal energy imparted to the fluid by their device significantly exceeds the input of mechanical energy driving the heater. These claims of more energy output than input is greeted with both interest by those looking for new energy sources and the potential physics behind them, and with considerable skepticism because such claims have never to date been independently verifiable.


Contents

About

  • Wikipedia:Cavitation - Cavitation is the phenomenon where small and largely empty cavities are generated in a fluid, which expand to large size and then rapidly collapse. When the cavitation bubbles collapse, they focus liquid energy to very small volumes. Thereby, they create spots of high temperature and emit shock waves. The collapse of cavities involves very high energies.

Verification and Testing

Videos

Companies

Vendors Making no claims to "Over Unity" efficiencies'

  • Hydro Dynamics - Scale-free heating with the Shockwave Power Reactor (formerly called Hydrosonic Pump). Controlled cavitation (collapsing bubbles) generates shock waves, which convert mechanical energy into heat energy.
  • Sonocracking Heavy Oil - SulphCo develops ultrasound technology to desulfurize and hydrogenate heavy crude oil. SonoCracking uses ultrasonic energy to induce cavitations in the processed liquid, creating bubbles which grow, contract and eventually burst, generating excess heat and pressure which disrupt molecular bonds. (Green Car Congress; Feb. 11, 2008)
  • Noteka NTK Heat Generator is based on creation and support of cavitation column inside vortical liquid without contact with generator’s walls.
  • Hot Stick Technology is a vortex friction heater from Dream Maker Spas by Mercantilla, LLC. The vortex causes the water to rotate in the chamber at a very high rate of speed. This swirling, whirlpool action is creating kinetic energy, friction and heat. The water heats at 1.9 degrees per hour using practically zero electricity to do so.
  • VRTX Technologies - Chemical-free kinetic energy water treatment. Micrometer-size bubbles and cavities form in spinning intake water. They collide in vacuum conditions and collapse in hydrodynamic cavitation of high pressure and temperature that forces change in water containing suspended particulates. Bonded trace elements like calcium carbonate crystals split away. Microorganisms are destroyed.
  • Dynaflow - DynaJets oxidation and disinfection technology employs hydrodynamic cavitation with energy efficiencies up to two orders of magnitude larger than with ultrasonic means.


Vendors Making claims to "Over Unity" efficiencies

  • AKOIL - In 2002 the active searches of energy-saving technologies brought A. Kochurov to the vortex heat generator (VHG) of the first generation, generating cheap thermal energy and hot water. Heat generators have the coefficient of energy conversion (electrical – mechanical – thermal), which is much more than 100%.
  • InterEnergoResurs - The method of converting electrical energy into heat is based on fluctuating vacuum in the condition of intense cavitation and on the use of the energy of the water molecules. The coefficient of performance of the electrical energy into thermal energy is up to 300%.
  • Thermowave converts molecular friction of water into heat for your whirlpool bath. Simply mounted on the discharge side of the water pump, the Thermowave will convert the energy of the moving water into "FREE HEAT!"
  • Alliance Management Services - Gibraltar Energy, a subsidiary of Alliance Management Services, has acquired the world wide exclusive rights to Kinetic devices that produce more energy than the energy required to produce it. The first unit developed is a kinetic furnace. Heating bills can be cut 30-65%, depending on geographical area.

Articles

  • NanoSpire's Cavitation Radiation Replication? - A man working in his garage used a drive motor from an old forced-air furnace and a pump from an old washing machine to make a device similar to NanoSpire's which is claimed to have produced cavitation fusion. (Free Energy Blog; November 10, 2013)
  • A Shocking New Pump - NASA engineers solved a design problem with Hydro Dynamics' rotor for use in the Hydrosonic Pump. The holes in the rotor produce microscopic bubbles, preventing the buildup of impurities (scale).
  • Shock waves and steam heat - Griggs's Hydrosonic pump has been examined by a steady stream of investigators, both friendly and skeptical. So far, they have all gone away mystified. Unlike most 'over-unity' devices, however, you can buy and install a hydrosonic pump in your own home.
  • James L. Griggs: Hydrosonic Pump - The ShockWave Power generator works by taking a fluid into the machine housing, where it is passed over the generator's spinning cylinder which creates pressure differences within the liquid where tiny bubbles form and collapse. These collapsing bubbles generate shock waves that heat the fluid.
  • Global Energy - In Russia, three firms (Yusmar, Termovikhr and Noteka) sell cavitation heating equipment with energy performance index up to 150%. Official science looks awry at this activity, because such results conflict with one of the main laws of physics: law of conservation of energy. But market profit is stronger than this law. (Ph.M. Kanarev)
  • Water Electric Generator of Heat - In engineering practice connected with ventilation system servicing, a phenomenon of excessive thermal energy in circulating air has been found. Similar phenomenon has been registered in water circulation systems with the devices for its active cavitations. (Ph.M. Kanarev)
  • New Technology Producing Heat and Nuclear Products via Cavitation Induced Micro Fusion - D2Fusion.com has developed a new energy technology using ultrasound induced cavitation in heavy water with metal target foils which results in energy (heat) production from a here to fore unknown class of nuclear reactions. Experiments using this technology have produced robust excess heat (resultant power up to 60+% greater than the input power).
  • First Gate Energies pioneered the method of using acoustic cavitation to produce the cold fusion effect. Acoustic cavitation uses ultrasonic waves to create gas bubbles within the heavy water. Stringham was the first to use the term "sonofusion" to describe how this phenomenon creates energy in cold fusion experiments.
  • "Kinetic Furnace" of Kinetic Heating Systems, Inc. of Cumming, Georgia. Jointly invented by Eugene Perkins and Ralph E. Pope, the furnace is a heat-producing rotary cavitation device for which the inventors have been granted four United States patents, the most recent one in 1994. Numerous independent companies and testing agencies have found the same over-unity performance.
  • Hot Bubbles - The gas in the collapsing bubble can become extraordinarily hot. Using current theories, researchers have set a lower limit of about 25,000 degrees Kelvin for the internal temperature of the completely collapsed bubble.

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