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PowerPedia:Browns gas

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William A. Rhodes electrolyzer [1]
William A. Rhodes electrolyzer [1]

Brown's Gas (BG) was originally called "common-ducted gas" by William Rhodes, who patented it.
Brown's Gas was subsequently named after Bulgarian heavy water chemist Yull Brown who spent the later half of his life commercializing BG.

George Wiseman defines Brown's Gas (BG) as:

"The entire mixture of gasses evolving from an electrolyzer that is specifically designed to electrolyze (split) water and to NOT separate the resulting gasses from each other."

BG contains H, H2, O, O2, H2O (as water vapor) and a special 6th gas that Yull Brown called a 'Fluid Crystal'; George Wiseman calls 'Electrically Expanded Water' (ExW); Ruggero Santilli calls 'Magnecules'; and Chris Eckman calls 'Orbital Expanded Plasma'.

BG is also known under brand names of:
Rhode's Gas, Spirig Gas, (Hydroxy), Brown Gas, Green Gas, Klein Gas, Aquygen, HHO, SG Gas, Ohmasa Gas and (erroneously by WikiPedia) OxyHydrogen.

Research indicates that Brown's Gas has characteristics that cannot be achieved by simply mixing bottled hydrogen and oxygen in a stoichiometric ratio.

Contents

History

There is no question that 'common-ducted' electrolyzers were built many times in the past (pictures can be seen in historical literature) but until William Rhodes, no one realized the potential of the 'common-ducted' gas and sought to patent it for commercial use.

The gas was first discovered by Dr. William A. Rhodes about 1960 during his experiments to help one of his clients solve a problem. (William Rhodes, died 2007, was a true 'rocket scientist' and an independent consultant of the highest caliber with dozens of patents).

The client wasn't interested in the 'common-ducted' gas, so Rhodes patented a simple electrolyzer and got an investor to help him form Henes Corporation to commercialize the innovation. Then the investor took over the business and tossed Rhodes out.

Rhodes went on to other projects (like inventing and patenting the superior 'series-cell' electrolyzer) and, without Rhodes technical input, the Henes Corporation failed. Rhodes abandoned the common-ducted gas research for decades, coming back to make some experiments just before his death.

"Of all elements, hydrogen and oxygen should hold no secrets. Yet, in this example they do and have been troublesome." -- William A. Rhodes (March 12, 2000)

Henes Corporation's assets languished until a savvy businessman named Dennis McMurray bought them up and formed a company called Arizona Hydrogen. Arizona Hydrogen still manufactures the simple electrolyzer (in several small sizes) originally designed by Rhodes, with some modifications that make it more reliable. They've done an excellent job finding niche applications where Brown's Gas is significantly superior to any other torch-fuel gas. They are a rare success story in the saga of BG.

Yull Brown, an immigrant to Australia from Bulgaria, found Rhodes patents as he was researching and experimenting to find a way to run vehicles on water. He designed and sold a 'water welder' as a means to fund his further research. Brown received patents for his electrolyzer designs in 1977 and 1978.

Over the years Brown entered several partnerships, all of which turned out badly for him. He spent a huge amount of money fighting patent infringements in Australia, started some businesses in the orient, then moved to America to make a fresh start. It didn't happen for him in America so he accepted a research project in China, there further developing the technology and designing machines with Norinco. After that he came back to America to sell Norinco machines and lost his American sales rights to Dennis Lee. He moved back to Australia and died there, pennyless.

Virtually every company that has tried to manufacture BG machines has failed to become profitable; for a variety of reasons. Some of those reasons are:
1. Quality, the machines made in the Orient are generally poor in quality, some lasting only minutes before breaking down.
2. Cumbersome, the machines were large, heavy, noisy, and inefficient (took a lot of electricity to make BG).
3. Expensive to manufacture, so retail cost is high.
4. Complicated, the machines are not easy to use.
5. Training, the machines are used by people who do not understand them.
6. Maintenance, users do not know how to properly maintain or repair the machines.
7. Lack of CSA/UL, CE and other safety certifications make it difficult to approach commercial customers.
8. Education, potential customers do not know what the BG can do for them.
9. Application specific challenges, like pre-heating steel for cutting and flashbacks on automatic shapers.

During the 1990s George Wiseman independently developed a near 100% efficient series-cell BG electrolyzer and subsequently became good friends with William Rhodes.

Wiseman did NOT patent his innovations, which finally made BG efficient and practical. Wiseman's design produces the same quantity of BG with half the weight, size and electricity. Wiseman's designs are simple to operate, easy to maintain, durable and reliable in operation. Wiseman's machines are designed to be repaired and upgraded by ordinary handymen. Wiseman's made-in-America design can retail at the wholesale cost of the China built machines. Wiseman's designs are setting the standard for CSA/UL safety testing.

Wiseman has written two BG books, which have become worldwide best sellers. The Brown's Gas Book 1 discusses BG theory and Brown's Gas Book 2 details how to home-build commercial sized BG electrolyzers out of surplus parts.

Wiseman is manufacturing and marketing his own versions of Brown's Gas electrolyzers. The automotive application (onboard electrolyzer) is called the HyZor Technology and the torch application is called WaterTorch Technology. Wiseman has solved virtually every technical challenge that has haunted BG.

Brown's Gas is gradually gaining momentum both in research results, device improvements, and manufacturing. Dr. Rhodes claims are the earliest documented. Yull Brown is historically the most recognized researcher and proponent. George Wiseman is usually recognized as the premier innovator and proponent today. Todd Knudtson may have some surprises.

Sales have not skyrocketed as predicted, largely due to the lack of U.L. / CSA listing, which is because there is no precedent standard. Also, device strengths and weaknesses need to be understood so as to hone in on the strengths. The technology basically has no intellectual protections at this point, though most try to give fiduciary credit where credit is due (except to Rhodes?).


Properties

Browns Gas Torch.
Browns Gas Torch.

Brown's Gas properties are often exaggerated, but are unusual and are gradually being backed by documented evidence.

One counter-claim is that there is no one capability of this gas that cannot be surpassed by some other technique; and that the main value is probably just that of a "Swiss Army Knife" versatility. However, such properties as not heating water, while immediately penetrating iron submerged in water, is a property that is probably not matched anywhere. The welding of dissimilar metals may include some combinations not achievable elsewhere. Also,

The Water/Fuel Converters Project - An electrolysis initiative that sets forth to clearly established the difference between Brown's Gas, Rhodes Gas, Oxy-Hydrogen, HHO, and the production methods thereof. the immediate effect on Tungsten is another efficiency that is probably not matched by anything else. The non-toxicity is a factor that must not be ignored either. The gas generation does not consume a great deal of electrical energy.

Browns Gas is made in a Common Ducted Electrolyzer. Released with droplets of fine water mist, Brown's Gas assumes a stable "mixture" of Di-atomic and Mon-atomic Hydrogen and Oxygen. Stoichiometrically akin to the Oxidized nature of Brown's Gas, safe handling measures are crucial; static discharge commonly follows the friction of moving particles--> Where early combustion may prove impressively undesirable; however owing credit to a notably higher Combustion Energy State than Diatomic Hydrogen alone.[4] Here, the water molecules are not totally separated, it's understood they are 'held under a pressure', causing the (Polar)water molecules to behave so differently.[5] Oxyethylene can achieve a temperature of 6300 degrees Fahrenheit but it takes over 10,500 degrees Fahrenheit to sublimate Tungsten.[6]

Burn temperature depends on the target material rather than the flame itself.[7][8]

As the gas produces 1860 liters of gas per liter of water[9] it derives cumulative heat from the environment.

Application

Brown's Gas heating apparatus 1,000° C. [2]
Brown's Gas heating apparatus 1,000° C. [2]
  • Fuel enhancement; hydrogen affects the burn rate of fuels and lean combustion capabilities of internal combustion engines.

Yull brown converted various cars to run on Browns gas and/or a mixture of gasoline and Browns gas. A simple technology hobbyists still apply today.

"I show results, many people make claims, but don't produce. Drawings and blueprints look nice in books on the shelf but the not in the real world"[10]


  • Heating. Sang Nam Kim claims "an energy generating apparatus using the cyclic combustion of Brown gas wherein a heat generating unit is heated to a temperature of 1,000.degree. C".
  • Use as a torch fuel

Browns gas eliminates many of the disadvantages associated with conventional gas welding like dangerous oxy-acetylene bottles, it is inexpensive, doesn't pollute the atmosphere.

  • Welding
  • brazing
  • Soldering
  • transmutation {radioactive waste}

Brown's Gas can efficiently neutralize radioactive waste though transmutation right at the reactor[11][12][13] thus removing the need for transportation or storage of nuclear waste. Such application can revolutionize the nuclear industry.[14] Former state assemblyman Dan Haley from New York investigated the lack of response after the US Department of Energy observed such demonstration of transmutation. The DEO invented numerous excuses after which addressed they finally decided they had seen nothing.

The DOE argued 1) "the radioactivity was encapsulated in the sample", but the sample was crushed and the Geiger counter reading was the same. They argued 2) "the radioactivity must be disparaged into the atmosphere" while the department of health preformed in depth investigation of the environment. This much to the frustration of the nuclear physicist preforming the research for it suggested their incompetence. The laboratory was not closed clearly indicating no radioactivity was found in or around the building. In stead (after 3 months) the government payroll advanced to the claim they had seen nothing.


Electrolyzer

There are several schools of thought on the best method of electrolysis, ranging from series to parallel plates; and there are competing claims to technology rights.

A number of electrodes, effectively in series, are arranged adjacent each other in a common electrolytic chamber, the chamber being provided with a gas collection space. Only the end electrodes are connected to the power supply. Additionally the need for a transformer for most applications can be eliminated by such an arrangement so that the apparatus can be designed to be directly connected to a main electrical supply or through a bridge rectifier if so desired. By eliminating the need for a transformer, the gas generating equipment as a whole can be made surprisingly compact, to be well suited for small domestic- as well as heavy industrial requirements.


Videos

Brown's Gas Videos

  • Video #1A Brown's Gas sublimating tungsten.
  • Video #1 Brown's Gas cutting aluminum.
  • Video #2 Brown's Gas brazing.
  • Video #3 Brown's Gas doesn't immediately burn skin.
  • Video #4 Brown's Gas doesn't boil water.
  • Video #5 A Video of BEST Korea's Brown's Gas generator. Other information also.
  • Video #6 A Video of Brown's Gas production in the HyZor automotive series generator produced by Eagle Research.
  • Video #7 The widespread HHO Video aired on Fox News.
  • Video #7A This is a television broadcast dealing with Brown's Gas. Much as the widespread HHO video detailed, this video details Brown's Gas.
  • Video #11 This is a video of Brown's Gas versus acetylene. Brown's Gas can punch a hole faster than Acetylene.
  • Video #12 This a another video of Brown's Gas racing acetylene. Brown's Gas cuts faster than Acetylene.
  • Video #13 This is another video of Brown's Gas racing Acetylene.
  • Video #14 Brown's Gas makes extremely clean cuts, with negnligible slag buildup.
  • Video #15 A video of Brown's Gas brazing, soldering, and welding various metals.
  • Video #16 A video of Brown's Gas punching a hole through ceramic material.

Patents

The series cell design by Yull Brown. [3]
The series cell design by Yull Brown. [3]

Yull Brown

Citations

References

William Rhodes

Sang-Nam Kim

Publications

  • Nexus Magazine
    • Issue No 7, Summer 1989, "Fire From Water"
    • Issue No 8, Autumn 1989, "Jules Verne to Yull Brown, An Urban Myth Come True"
    • Issue No 9, 1989-1990, "Water Power--Fuel of the Future Today"
  • Extraordinary Science Magazine
    • Vol 5 (3), Jul-Aug-Sep 1993, "Brown's Gas, A Revolutionary Breakthrough"
  • Explore Magazine
    • Vol 3 (2), 1992, "Fire From Water, Saga of Yull Brown" (Part 1)
    • Vol 3 (3), 1992, "Fire From Water, Saga of Yull Brown" (Part 2)
    • Vol 3 (6), 1992, "Fire From Water, Saga of Yull Brown" (Part 3)
  • Planetary Association For Clean Energy,
    • Vol. 6, No 4, "Transmutations of Radioactive Materials with Yull Brown's Gas"
  • MaxaPower Technical Bulletin, "The Aqua-Phase Shift Technology 1991"

Companies

  • Arizona Hydrogen A domestic manufacturer of generators. This company is an operation that was born from the work of William Rhodes. It has not been determined whether these generators are pressurized or not.
  • BEST Korea The primary Korean manufacturer of Brown's Gas generators. They have the worlds largest ongoing manufacturing operation of Brown's Gas generators. They have a slew of intelecual property rights in Korea. They possess novel designs for systems that use Brown's Gas as the sole fuel in residential heating, and incineration systems.
  • Stan Rubinstein & Assoc. An American manufactuer of Brown's Gas generators specifically for precision jewlery applications.
  • The Water Torch Collective, LTD A Canadian organization providing access and substantial information about Brown's Gas technologies.
  • Eagle Research A Canadian research organization that has documented substantive information about Brown's Gas. "Brown's Gas Book 1" and "Brown's Gas Book 2", that the company provides, are some of the most important contributions to the field of Brown's Gas since it's invention. The book contains extremely pertinent research data, practical analysis, and implication consideration.
  • The Water/Fuel Converters Project A Noah Seidman project designed to clarify the distinction between Brown's Gas, Rhodes Gas, Oxy-Hydrogen, HHO, and the production methods thereof.

See also

- PowerPedia main index
- PESWiki home page

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