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Cold fusion is a name for any nuclear fusion reaction which occurs significantly below the temperature required for standard thermonuclear reactions.
Also known as Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions (LANR); Condensed Matter Nuclear State Physics (CMNS); Solid State Nuclear Reactions, Lattice Enabled; Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR).
These reactions are not over unity. There is a fuel giving away energy. Hydrogen is collapsing to form Helium.
Cold Fusion's history
|External encyclopedia article: Wikipedia's Cold Fusion
This is an outstanding encyclopedic article on Cold Fusion. There is more to the cold fusion story than this synopsis covers. See the Wikipedia Cold Fusion article for more details and links to useful and information cold fusion related websites.
They featured a synopsis of the entry on their home page Aug. 23, 2004.
Cold Fusion is perhaps the most controversial scientific claim of the 20th Century (and there was no shortage of controversial scientific claims during this time period).
The controversy started from day one of the March, 23 1989 announcement. The two respected scientists, Dr. Stanley Pons and Dr. Martin Fleischmann, of the University of Utah, started off on the wrong foot when they announced their discovery via press conference, instead of via refereed scientific journals as is traditionally done (although their paper had been accepted to the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry just days prior to the press conference). Pons and Fleischmann were more or less forced by their employer, The University of Utah, to come forward and make their announcement in a hasty manner, in order to ensure the University had a jump on the competition for patent rights to their discovery.
The claims of fusion at room temperature with a simple apparatus were just too outlandish to be believed by many mainstream scientists, who saw the reported discovery as going against decades of nuclear research and theory. Their response was not surprising, considering the billions that had been spent on hot fusion research, and the fact that some of the expected nuclear fusion effects, such as deadly gamma rays were not reported.
The controversy continued to degenerate as claims of neutron emissions were quickly retracted by Pons and Fleischmann, and claims of replication from other laboratories started to wither under examination. Within weeks of the announcement, cold fusion had been tossed off into the trash bin of pseudo-science. Many were calling Pons and Fleischmann frauds. By the late Spring of 1989 it seemed that cold fusion had died a quick death.
However, a cold fusion underground of dedicated researchers continued to investigate the Pons and Fleischmann claims well after cold fusion was considered dead and forgotten by mainstream science. These underground researchers worked with little money and often in secrecy, as the subject remained highly controversial, and still is in many quarters today.
After 1989 to 2004
Between 1989 and 2004 hundreds of reports of excess heat and nuclear ash were reported in a wide variety of scientific and sometimes quasi-scientific journals. These reports came from countries all around the world. Some even ventured into the realm of claims of transmutation of elements during the cold fusion reactions; a venture into another highly controversial scientific subject.
The important thing about the reported positive cold fusion results was that they were not coming from crackpot scientists. They were actually coming from reputable sources such as the U.S. Navy (who released a report in the Spring of 2002 that detailed ten years of cold fusion research), major oil companies, research centers such as SRI in California, and university and corporate scientists from around the world. Many of the reported positive results were quietly reported and ignored by mainstream science.
By 2004, the cold fusion controversy had thawed to the point that the U.S. Department of Energy was willing to re-examine cold fusion claims, after 15 years of ignoring them, and concluded their reassessment with a report in late 2004. Although not an endorsement of cold fusion, the report was more positive towards funding specific cold fusion research, and about one third of the reviewers indicated that they believed sufficient evidence for excess heat and nuclear ashes had been provided by the cold fusion proponents. This was a rather significant departure from the past taboo status that tarred cold fusion. One third of randomly selected scientists from American academia were now on record stating that sufficient evidence for cold fusion was available in the research papers published to date.
2004 was also a banner year for cold fusion press coverage, as mainstream science journals such as Nature and Science gave cold fusion a second look and cold fusion stories appeared in major publications such as the New York Times and Scientific American.
As of March 2006, the cold fusion controversy still remains to be settled. However, the tenor of the debate has seen a significant shift. Once lambasted as pseudo-science, taboo-science, the prime example of scientific fraud, and generally ignored by mainstream science, cold fusion has been slowly gaining respectability in the early 21st Century. Some commercialization efforts have even begun, as further outlined below.
It will probably take a major confirmation from another country, such as Italy, China or Japan to put the cold fusion controversy to rest. Other countries are much more open to cold fusion than the United States. Patents are routinely issued for cold fusion in Asia and Europe (whereas the U.S. Patent Office won't even consider cold fusion patents, as it is still considered taboo science).
Even if cold fusion is eventually proven beyond a doubt to mainstream science (there have been other controversial scientific ideas that took far longer to be resolved), there still are real questions about whether cold fusion will ever be anything more than just a laboratory curiosity. Something worth studying for pure science research reasons, but of little real importance to energy or other technological advancements.
Banned from US Patent Office
Hal Fox wrote:
- 'From this [cold fusion] research, many invention applications have been filed, especially by Japanese and American scientists. Over 100 low-energy nuclear reactions patents have issued in Japan and many more in European countries. . .By contrast, no patents have been allowed to issue in the U.S. An estimated 300 patent applications have been sent to the U.S. Office of Patents and Trademarks by inventors using these systems, but no patents have issued citing the prior art. It is not credible that hundreds of scientists and inventors are all mistaken in their experiments and data, or that only the patent examiners are sufficiently educated to point out the faults of these inventions. Therefore, the Office of Patents and Trademarks has been denying inventors their constitutional rights to the protection of intellectual property. . .The end result of the above activities has been the following: Lack of education in the United States because few, if any, accurate articles on ‘cold fusion’ have appeared in any major publications except Fusion Technology. Lack of intellectual property development in the United States because although many ‘cold fusion’ patents issued abroad, no patents were allowed to be issued in the U.S. Lack of science and engineering development because little research and development is occurring at major U.S. universities, few corporations have invested heavily in low-energy nuclear reactions, and there is still no official DOE support. Lack of security of the United States."
Understanding the cold fusion reaction
Years after the original cold fusion announcement, thousands of experiments have been performed and some preliminary conclusions have been drawn about the exact materials, ratios and conditions that are necessary to achieve cold fusion in a typical aqueous experimental setup. The optimal operating conditions at this moment are believed to be (PLEASE FILL IN AND ADD INFORMATION BELOW IF YOU CAN CONTIBUTE):
- Specific Material Batches - Succesful replication of the cold fusion reaction appears to be stongly affected by the batch of metal used for the cathode metal. Certain batches of palladium produce the cold fusion reaction more consistently, while others do not work at all. Why, is still not thoroughly understood, but appears to be related to the atomic structure of the metal sample and the amount of impurities within the metal sample.
- Note: The understanding regarding which materials, ratios and conditions are is necessary to achieve a positive cold fusion result is subject to change over time as more research is conducted and data is collected and analyzed. There are still many variables and conditions associated with the cold fusion reaction that have not been fully explored and are currently not well understood. In many cases there are up and down variations in energy output over time, on time scales of days.
Steps in a typical cold-fusion experiment
1. Choice of host metal/alloy. (Palladiumd, Titatnium, Zirconium, Magnesiumg, Vanadim, Niobiumb-Titanium, any hydrogen storing alloy; even a high-temperature superconductor.)
2. Preparation of samples. (Degassing, surface cleaning, annealing) Many researchers have reported that performing specific preparations on the metals used in the cells prior to commencing an experiment will increase the chances of a positive cold fusion result. For example, some have suggested shaving 20% of the surface of the cathode or anode has been shown to increase the chances of a positive result.
3. Loading of deuterium. (Electrolysis, gas, plasma, ion implantation, etc.) In the case of electolysis only the negatively charged anode is being loaded, as that is what the positively charged deuterium ions are attracted to.
4. Measurement of degree of loading (or deuterium-to-metal atom ratio). (Weighing, volume increase, resistivity, X-ray diffraction, etc.)
5. Stimulation/triggering of fusion reactions (to create non-equilibrium conditions). (Current pulsing, thermal cycling, electrical discharge, application of intense magnetic field, pressure changes, shock wave, projectile impact, etc.)[oakland Dentists]
6. On-line diagnostics. (Heat, neutrons, charged particles, X-rays or gamma rays, acoustic or radio emissions)
7. Off-line (or post-experiment) analysis. (4He, tritium activity, activation products)
8. Theoretical interpretation/modelling/analysis. [Reference: http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/Srinivasannuclearfus.pdf]
One theoretical model of cold fusion proposed by R.T. Bush, Transmission Resonance Mode (TRM), that coherent DeBroglie matter waves of deutrium enter the metal lattice. R.T. Bush has shown that a 100%-transmission condition would be satisfied when ‘an odd integral multiple of the average quarter-wavelengths of the de Broglie waves of the deuterons matches the potential well widths of the particles situated in the PdDx lattice’. Quantum mechanical waves effects then dominate the motion of the deuterium ions. This is in contrast to hot fusion, which can be understood in terms of classical thermodynamics with coulomb barrier being overcome by random motion of atoms to enter a nuclear Yukawa potential well. With de Broglie waves, however, resonance effects become important, and the behavior becomes highly sensitive to tuning of temperature and current and many other factors. However, there is some doubt about the validity of this model per se.
For metals that resist hydrogen penetration, and fusion happens at the surface, another model comes into play. Hydrogen or duterium gas forms pockets at the metal surface, and resonance-induced implosions cause fusion, similar to the alleged fsion mechanism of somnoluminescence. Possibly DeBrolige waves are sill scattered, but also relected, the difference being that the waves are in the gas and water rather than in the metal lattice. This model may be applicable to such devices as the "Joe Cell".
Another interesting approach is matching the resonance of the nuclear Yukawa potential ultimately responsible for fusion. The width of the Yukawa potential is determined by the range of virtual pions plus the size of the target nucleus. In the case of fusing two identical nucleuses, they would both resonance match with each other's potential wells at the same time, which is even more benneficial, and penetration through a lattice would be unnecessary. In any case, the necessary temperatures to hit the primary resonance match of a nucleon's thermal De Broglie wavelength to another nucleon's Yukawa potential is below a degree Kelvin. This truly is "cold fusion".
A more likely but related mechanism is that while undergoing penetration through matter-wave scattering in a metal lattice, localized constructive waves with fringe widths orders of magnitude different than their wavelength occur. The Pauli exclusion principle would allow two such protons with opposite spin to coexist with the same fringe pattern. Although the overall expected distances between protons would still be very large, the chances of them being close enough to exchange virtual pions is greatly enhanced.
An entirely different theoretical approach is to consider mechanism that shield the coulomb potentials of protons/nuclei from each other. High velocity but well-ordered relative movemets of nuclei can create magnetic shielding of he coulomb potential. Relativistic movement of electrons along the same lines of motion can help constrain the nuclei magneticly to that line. The combination of the electrons constraining the nuclei to a line of motion and the nuclei moving fast enough to magneticly shield their own coulomb potential allows fusion to happen at lower temperatures. Additionally, a smaller nuclei magnetically pinched to by colinear with an electron current path, could easily be squeezed between two larger nuclei that are being resonated into periodic motion. This raises its potential energy every time the larger nuclei move towards each other. Repeated application of such pinching could force small nuclei to overcome the potential barriers of its adjacent larger neighbors.
It should be noted that high-energy well-ordered motion could happen at low-temperatures. Relativistic motion of protons would give those protons enough energy to lead to the creation of other subatomic particles that could contribute to shielding.
In yet another mechanism, collisions between ionized electrons and protons magnetically confined to colinear motion could lead to either virtual or real neutrons. These in turn could follow the pre-determined colinear path of the proton, leading most likely to the next nearest nuclei. Without a coulomb barrier between the neutron and the nuclei, and with lattice resonances already having aligned the motions, the probability of collision increases dramatically. Any virtual energy deficit is then quickly recovered from the fusion.
Perhaps the most promising mechanism for cold fusion is the hydrino state of Hydrogen. Dr. Mills hypothesized that below ground-state hydrogen states exist called hydrinos. Accroding to Dr. Mills, these states can only be achieved through non-radiative catalytic reactions in which the Hydrogen atom gives energy to a catalyst. Although Mills's model of quantum mechanics, which gives closed form solutions surprisingly close to experimental results, is controversial, several theoreticians have shown the hydrinos are allowed by the mathematics of relativistic quantum mechanics. Mills contention that hyrinos are acheived through non-radiative states is at odds with his claim to have observed spectral lines of hydrinos. Regardless of what anybody thinks about Mills's theories in general, when viewed as a many years-long brain storming session to find the missing link between theory and LENR observations, Mills' resarch can be seen as a bold but successful achiement in the progress of science if it turns out the hydrinos exist, regardless of which theoretical model they fit in.
There are currently four known commercial development efforts underway to commercialize cold fusion as an energy source:
- Established: Energetics Technologies of Israel is actively pursuing commercialization of cold fusion research that originated in Russia. They are trying to enhance the cold fusion reaction by utilizing a concept known as the "superwave effect", which theoretically can increase the cold fusion reaction to a level at which it can be used in a commercial energy device. Unfortunately, little is known about the inner workings of this company. Their research developments are only sporadically revealed at international science conferences dedicated to this field. No Known Company Website. Two worthwhile write ups about Energetics can be found at: An Israeli Connection and More about Energetics Technologies
- Established: A company called D2Fusion of California is purportedly developing a solid state variant of the cold fusion reaction. D2Fusion was acquired by Solar Energy Limited of Vancouver, Canada in 2005. In their press release concerning their post-buyout plans Solar Energy Limited states, "The immediate target of D2Fusion is to produce a 1kW thermal module with parallel prototypes tested at Los Alamos and in Frascati, Italy. D2Fusion's ultimate goal is to produce electricity at less than 2 cents/kWh and heat at a fraction of today's cost, both achieved with no emissions." On March 23, 2006 D2Fusion announced that Martin Fleishmann had joined their cold fusion product development effort as an advisor, with a goal of a cold fusion home heater by Summer 2007. Cold fusion investigator Krivit is very skeptical about this company, see story in New Energy Times A Close Look at Russ George's D2Fusion Inc. Website: D2Fusion
- Established: JET Thermal Products of Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts has been actively researching and pursuing commercialization of cold fusion since the early 1990s. They have focused their efforts on producing better performance, improved understanding and control of the physics, better and more diverse materials, advanced engineering, and quality assurance and quality control in cold fusion heat producing reactions and devices. In May 2005 JET announced that they are now producing cold fusion devices that produce work as well as excess heat. Website: JET Thermal Products
- Inactive: A commercialization effort has been rumored to be in process at an American/Canadian company known as iESi iESiUSA appears to have shut down and iESi, based in Canada has taken its place. They were attempting to commercialize a proprietary cold fusion cell, based on a South Korean patent, for utility scale energy delivery. However, the holder of the patent, a South Korean native, has disassociated himself with iESiUSA, Inc. and it appears that their efforts to develop cold fusion commercial products is no longer active. Additionally, iESi has offered no new updates since their original announcements in the first half of 2005. The South Korean patent holder is apparently pursuing other avenues to commercialize his cold fusion process. Indepth investigation by cold fusion reporter Krivit at New Energy Times Report on Innovative Energy Solutions Inc. Website: iESica
Other cold fusion related development efforts worth mentioning are:
- Established: Mitsubishi Industries of Japan has been researching cold fusion related technologies since the mid-late 1990s with varied success. Some of their researchers have reported transmutation of elements in their cold fusion cells. It is unclear if Mitsubishi's research efforts will lead to commercial developments of cold fusion technolgies, but since Mitsubishi is a for-profit business, it is reasonable to assume that they will commercialize any future cold fusion technology or product that is marketable.
- Established: The Mastrrr Company of Texas has been conducting research since 1991 which may relate to and benefit from published reports by scientists' ongoing advances in cold fusion research. Their research focuses on the vortex phenomenon, a phenomenon in which water cavitations occur in a vigorous tornado-like water formation, which apparently causes some sort of low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) which in turn causes transmutation of pollutants into inert materials. They are focusing their efforts on using this innovative cold fusion/LENR approach to desalinate water inexpensively and to treat contaminated groundwater and industrial waste water in an economical way that drastically reduces pollution prior to final treatment. They are currently moving towards field testing their technology. This is certainly an unexpected and innovative use of the cold fusion/LENR reaction. This could be a major development for parts of the world that struggle to provide clean water at a reasonable cost. Mastrrr Company is a privately owned, for profit, entity of the forty year old Macaulay group in Texas. Many firms such as Mastrrr are engaged in applied research in fields other than cold fusion. These firms are beginning to benefit from basic cold fusion research as the worldwide results are published. Company Website: The Mastrrr Company
- Proposed: As of July 2005, the governments of Italy and Japan are discussing funding a 25 Million Euro research and development project to determine if Mitsubishi's cold fusion research efforts can be expanded to remediate hazardous nuclear waste, by turning radioactive elements into non-radioactive elements.
The major problem cold fusion currently has with mainstream science is that new nuclear theories and nuclear pathways must be developed to explain how cold fusion can actually occur at room temperature. The pathways for hot fusion just don't work for cold fusion, which is why mainstream science had such a hard time believing cold fusion claims.
One of the ironies of cold fusion is that while it offers a cleaner nuclear technology, many professional researchers concentrate on demonstrating that it produces radiation in order to prove that it is nuclear. Perhaps a better avenue of reasearch would be to understand how to make it even less radioactive by enhancing the new non-radioactive pathways. If a completely non-radioactive cold fusion could be developed, then it could be used stealthily without the immediate knowledge of nuclear authorities. However, it would likely still produce radioactive isotopes as biproducts of fusion. Therefore, engineering a cold fusion process that leads to non-radioactive isoptopes would also be a promising avenue of research. For example, H + H --> D, which is one of the most common fusions in stars, does not have a radioative isotope biproduct. A cold fusion version of this might allow for clean nuclear power.
There is report of excess heat which lead to believe the fusion H + H --> D from the collapsing of the hydrogen bubbles; the phenomenon of sonoluminescence when it is introduced into a liquid that is bombarded by supersonic vibration. - A simple, easy to replicate experiment can be observed when an open, water electrolytic cell is close or in contact with a supersonic honk..
In nuclear reactions, a chemical element may be transmuted into another. There are numerous reports of nuclear transmutations and isotope anomalies in cold fusion experiments. Cold fusion proponents say that it is generally accepted that these anomalies are not the ash associated with the primary excess heat effect
Tadahiko Mizuno was among the first to contribute a paper and a book on the subject. Dr. Miley, who also developed a process for making small inertial electrostatic confinement devices to serve as portable fusion neutron sources, wrote a review of these experiments. Some report the creation of only a few elements, while others report a wide variety of elements from the periodic table. Calcium, copper, zinc, and iron were the most commonly reported elements, often with natural abundance.
Iwamura and associates published what they say to be further evidence of transmutations in the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics in 2002. Instead of using electrolysis, they forced deuterium gas to permeation through a thin layer of caesium or strontium deposited on calcium oxide and palladium, while periodically analyzing the nature of the surface through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They said that as the deuterium gas permeated over a period of a week, cesium appeared to be progressively transmuted into praseodymium while strontium appeared to be transmuted into molybdenum with anomalous isotopic composition representing an addition of four deuterium nuclei to the original nuclide. When the deuterium gas was replaced by hydrogen in control experiments, no transmutation was reported to be observed. The authors said that they analyzed, and then rejected, the possibility of explaining these various observations by contaminations or migration of impurities from the palladium interior.
One of the unstated implications of Iwamura and associates paper is that Radium could be transmuted into Uranium. One possibility is that cold fusion could be used for breeder reactors in conjunction with fission technology. Another is that a non-nuclear power such as Japan could produce fissile material on-demand. Thus, they could produce nuclear weapons that do not contain Uranium until deployment, and thus possess nuclear weapons without violating non-proliferation agreements.
"Cold Fusion" is a broad term that describes a set of previously unknown nuclear or nuclear/chemical reactions. Other terms that have been adopted to describe "Cold Fusion" type reactions, include:
- Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)
- Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR)
- Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS)
This redefining of the term "Cold Fusion" is best illustrated by the fact that the previously named International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF) has been changed to International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, but it still carries the familiar acronym ICCF.
- Extraordinary Evidence (U.S. Navy), New Energy Times
- PowerPedia:Eugene Mallove
- The Perfesser, "fusor.net
Current news accounts and websites
- New Energy Times Site that focuses on the latest advances in the field of cold fusion
- Cold Fusion Directory, PESWiki
- Cold Fusion -- 17 Years and Heating Up, FreeEnergyNews.com
- Alternapedia:Cold fusion
Department of Energy Report
- "Complete collection of Department of Energy Cold Fusion documents New Energy Times
- "U.S. Department of Energy Report on Cold Fusion". Free Energy News, Dec. 1, 2004.
- "While significant progress has been made in the sophistication of calorimeters since the review of this subject in 1989, the conclusions reached by the reviewers today are similar to those found in the 1989 review."
- "DOE Cold Fusion Report 2004 Editable Index"
- Experimental evidence of 4He production in a cold fusion experiment (aka "Rapporto 41") by ENEA (Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente
- LENR-CANR.org, an on-line library of over 400 original source scientific papers on cold fusion, from peer reviewed journals and conference proceedings.
- Cold Fusion Lectures and Essays (1998) & 'Power from Water: Cold Fusion' (1994): it gives a firsthand thorough account of the efforts and experiments in the development of cold fusion, including the obstruction and hostility done by state agencies and the industry; it presents also the description of this British engineer and physicist, Harold Aspden, GB Patent no. 2,231,195 (1993) and U.S. Patent no. 5,734,122 (1998); it presents published theoretical research.
- Directory:Cold Fusion
- PowerPedia:Cold fusion
- DOE 2004 Cold Fusion Report
- PowerPedia:Foundations for Cold Fusion
- PowerPedia:Cold Fusion Theories
- Leslie Pastor's review of Cold Fusion
LENR NEWS, BLOGS, MAGAZINES:
- News:Cold Fusion | 2006-2010 | 2011 | 2012
- News:Rossi Cold Fusion
- Cold Fusion Times
- Directory:Cold Fusion Now
- Directory:New Energy Times
- Directory:Infinite Energy Magazine
- News: Cold Fusion: 60 Minutes: More Than Junk Science
LEADING LENR COMPANIES:
- Directory:Andrea A. Rossi Cold Fusion Generator (E-Cat) | News
- Directory:Brillouin Energy Corporation (BEC)
- Directory:Francesco Celani's LENR / Cold Fusion Cell
- Directory:Dennis Cravens
- Directory:LENR-Gen Distributed Power Units from George H. Miley and LENUKO
- NanoSpire, Inc.
- Directory:Athanor Hydrobetatron LENR Cell of the Leopoldo Pirelli Industrial High School in Rome
- Directory: NUCAT Energy LLC
- Directory:JET Thermal Products
- Directory:Francesco Piantelli