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Review:Magnetic Universe Theory Of Science

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Title changed to "Two Particles Universe Theory of Science".

Luxon-like theory consisting of two elementary particles, positive and negative particles, and one electric force in three dimensional volume.

Click on images to retrieve a higher-resolution version if you wish.


By Yaniv Stern
First published here May 27, 2010


My name is Yaniv Stern and I got a PhD in biology from the University of Leeds in England. The theory of evolution has reduced all of biological diversity to a single cell. When I broke this cell further down through its constituent molecules and atoms at the sub atomic level I discovered increasing complexity with many elementary particles and forces and this did not make sense to me. I felt that as matter is broken down further and further, fewer elementary particles and forces should exist, the simpler the rules of science should become. So I decided to review physics.

I took basic physical properties of matter, light and gravity, and linked them using two elementary particles, positive and negative particles, and one electric force in three dimensional volume.

Outlined is a brief description of my theory, please hold on because I will end by describing an experiment that could distinguish between my theory and traditional physics.

Contents

Matter

Image:Matter 500.gif

The most fundamental units of matter in the universe are positive and negative particles.

I wanted to name these particles and as elementary positive and negative particles were already discovered and named I thought it is appropriate to name an elementary positive particle a "positron" and an elementary negative particle an "electron". So when I use these terms think of charged elementary particles only – NOT in terms of their allocated masses and spins.

The universe is asymmetrical with many more positrons than electrons. Positive repulsive forces between positrons push the expansion of the universe, and light and heat are made up of electrons.

Nuclear matter is made up of protons and neutrons which are themselves made up of positrons and electrons and I will explain in the next two slides, and cationic matter is made of interactions between nuclears and electrons.

In a neutral universe with equal number of positive and negative particles one would expect neutral atoms to form – but in a positively charged universe with many more positrons than electron there is not sufficient number of electrons to neutralise the positive charge of nuclears so most atoms remain positively charged cations.

Elementary Interactions

Image:Elementary interactions1.jpg

Elementary interactions are based on the rules of electricity: similarly charged particles repel each other and oppositely charged particles attract each other.

Two positrons repel each other, two electrons repel each other, a positron and an electron are attracted to each other and interact to form a neutral particle named "neutrino". A simultaneous interactions between two positrons and one electron form a "proton" and a simultaneous interaction between two electrons and one positron forms an "anti-proton". A proton and an anti-proton interact to form a "neutron". These interactions occurred early in the universe when it was small and dense.

A proton decays into a positron and a neutrino, an anti-proton decays into an electron and a neutrino, and a neutron decays into a proton an electron and a neutrino.

Nuclears

Image:Nuclears 500.gif

This image shows the first nuclears in the periodic table. A single proton constitutes hydrogen. A proton and an anti-proton constitute a neutron. A proton plus a neutron form another isotope of hydrogen. This isotope plus another proton constitutes helium and a lithium nuclear could be made up of five protons and two anti-protons and these interactions were repeated to form heavier nuclears of the periodic table and occurred early in the universe just after protons, antiprotons and neutrons were formed.

Cations

Image:Cations.jpg

Charged particles in nuclears move around and change positions (curvy grey arrows). At any point on the surface of nuclears charges rapidly alternate. Electrons are attracted (arrows) to nuclears by more positive charges but repelled (flat headed arrows) by negative charges on the surface. Unable to establish permanent contacts electrons form a cloud around nuclears.

Atoms and Temperature

Image:Atoms temperature.jpg

Heat consists of negative particles, electrons, and atomic charge is temperature-dependent. At cold temperatures atoms are positively charged and positive charge of atoms decreases at increasing temperatures.

Matter is made up of positive cationic matter. Positive repulsive forces between nuclears are balanced by contributory electric forces, the negative adhesive charge of electrons and the counteracting positive charge of the environment – the entire universe.

In solids nuclears share many electrons and retain fixed positions. When solids are heated and more electrons are introduced cations absorb electrons, share fewer electrons, and are free to move around and melt into liquid. Further heating and negative repulsive forces between electrons push cations apart forcing evaporation.

Magnets and Electricity

Image:Magnets1.jpg

The magnetic force can be explained using electrons, holes and an assumption that charged particles moving in opposite directions interact more strongly than charged particles moving in the same direction.

Currents moving in the same direction along conductors and around nuclears in magnets attract because attractive forces between electrons and holes is stronger than repulsive forces between electrons and repulsive forces between holes (a).

Currents moving in opposite directions along conductors and around nuclears in magnets repel because repulsive forces between electrons and repulsive forces between holes are stronger than attractive forces between electrons and holes (b).

Interactions between electrons and holes in a compass and a conductor is strongest and most stable when the compass is aligned perpendicularly to the conductor (c).

Light

Chromatic Refraction

Image:Chromatic refraction.jpg

White light shines through a prism refracts into distinct colors. The theory proposes white light consists of electrons traveling at different speeds. Fast electrons carry more speed and are refracted less strongly than slower electrons when pass from one medium to another. The theory predicts red light consists of electrons traveling faster than blue light electrons.

Diffraction of Light

Image:Diffraction230111.jpg

The bright and dark stripes observed in double slit experiments could be explained if light travels in pulses (a). Diffraction grating shows red light diffracts more than blue light (b) so red light consists of longer distance (wavelength) between pulses.

Photoelectric Effect

Image:Photoelectric_effect.jpg

Blue light shines on a charged metal ejects faster electrons than red light (a). Blue light consists of slower electrons that exert longer and stronger repulsive forces on electrons in the metal (b). Red light consists of faster electrons that exert shorter and weaker repulsive forces on electrons in the metal (c).

Radiation Curves

Image:Radiation curves1.jpg

Radiation curves are explained with intensity of electrons (number of electrons per volume or time) and speed of electrons emitted from stars. The intensity of electrons depends on the temperature of a star. Hot stars emit more electrons than cool stars. The speed of electrons also depends on temperature of a star. Hot stars emit faster (redder) spectrum than cool stars.

Motion-Dependent Doppler Shift

Image:Doppler shift.jpg

As in traditional theory an observer facing an approaching object experiences shorter distance between pulses (higher frequency) than an observer facing a receding object.

Polarisation of Light

Image:Polarization of light.jpg

Polarisation of light requires an asymmetry and could be explained with discs, say, fast electrons flatten into discs. An electron with a vertical plane could pass through a polarising material with a vertical alignment but an electron with a horizontal plane collides with the material. (Polarization of radio waves could be a different phenomenon such as alternating electric and magnetic fields).

Gravity

Gravity on earth, planetary objects, optical distortions of distant images, are different types of electric interactions.

Gravity On Earth

Image:Gravity on earth.jpg

This image explains gravity on earth. A cross section through the earth shows a solid cold core and a fluid hot mantle. In a neutral universe one would expect electrons to be uniformly distributed but in a positive universe negative repulsive forces between electrons and attraction to the positive universe cause heat to be concentrated at the periphery.

Gravity on earth is a type of electric interaction between positive matter and the hot mantle.

The positive charge of earth creates a positive field which decreases with distance (dashed line). Negative heat particles in the mantle create a depression in this field (solid line) and cationic matter is pushed from higher to lower positive field.

Temperature at core is cool enough for a magnetic rock to exist and generates earth’s magnetic field.

Planetary Orbits

Image:Planetary orbits1.jpg

Planets located closer to the sun orbit faster than planets located further away from the sun. The positive charge of the sun creates a zone of low positron density. Positron density is low closer to the sun and increases at increasing distance from the sun (inset). Planets located further away from the sun slow down quicker than planets located closer to the sun by friction with higher positron density. The curved motion of planets resulting from higher friction on the side far from the sun than on the side closer to the sun.

The theory predicts distances between planets and sun should increase in time, astronomical time, and speeds of planets should decrease in time.

Optical Distortion of Distant Images

Image:Optical distortion.jpg

Stars have a measured angular separation. When the sun is located between the stars they appear to be further apart with increased angular separation. The theory proposes light is bent inwards by the positive field of the sun.

Note on the graph that bending of light occurs over a different curvature of the positive field than gravity on earth-like interaction.

Cosmos

Evolution of the Universe

Image:evolution universe.jpg

The universe began as a primordial sphere made up of positive and negative particles. This primordial sphere had two important properties; one it was asymmetrical with many more positive than negative particles. Positive repulsive forces inside this sphere triggered its expansion (the big bang) and push the universe apart to this day and forever. The second property of the primordial sphere was that distribution of electrons was not homogenous, but patchy, with electron-poor patches and electron-rich patches. Electron-poor patches expanded into inter-galactic voids and pushed on cationic nebulas which formed inside electron-rich patches to form stars, galaxies and the large scale filamentous structure of the universe.

This diagram (right) shows stages early in the evolution of the universe. At first elementary particles interacted to form protons and antiprotons. More positrons implies that more protons were synthesized than antiprotons. Protons and antiprotons interacted to form neutrons, and neutrons and protons interacted to form heavier nuclears. Once nuclears formed electrons interacted with nuclears to form cations and cations interact together to form molecules by sharing electrons, and positive repulsive forces between cations neutralized by the positive charge of the universe.

The theory predicts CMBR consists of low intensity and low pulse frequency (long wavelength) very fast electrons.

Stars

Image:Stars1.jpg

The positive charge of space pushes on cations to aggregate and pulls on electrons outwards, inducing a process of cationic decay. Young stars are hot and luminous and radiate fast electrons. As stars age they dim and cool and radiate fewer slower electrons. (Rate of cooling depends on size. Large stars with low surface area to volume ratio cool slower than small stars with larger surface to volume ratio).

The positive repulsive forces inside a star are balanced by the positive charge of the universe (and negative adhesive charge of electrons). As the universe expands and density of positrons decreases and the positive repulsive force of space weakens, positive repulsive forces inside a star push its expansion and stars will gradually diffuse to space, or rapidly explode.

Galactic Red-Shift

Image:Red shift1.jpg

Light received from a distant galaxy is redder than light received from a closer galaxy because light received from a distant galaxy was emitted by younger, hotter, redder stars. The intensity of light received from a distant galaxy is lower than intensity of light received from a closer galaxy because intensity decreases with distance.

Time

Image:Time1.jpg

Time is a measure of change and change is driven by the positive charge of the universe. The positive charge of the universe pushes its expansion – changes in distances and induces cationic decay and changes in physical properties such as luminosities, temperatures and sizes. Change/time is one directional – future.

Predictions

So I came up with a theory that reduces the fundamental forces of nature to one, elementary particles to two, dimensions to three, and provides many other connections, as well as links the physical, chemical and biological sciences. But is it right? Well, a scientific theory has to be tested by experiments and my theory certainly provides many experimentally testable predictions. But I looked for an experiment which could not only test a prediction of my theory, but test a prediction of my theory against a prediction of traditional physics. And I found one.

Weight should decrease at increasing Temperatures

Image:Weight1.jpg

The theory predicts weight should decrease at increasing temperatures. In a positive universe positive matter experiences repulsive forces from all directions. (a) When forces from opposite directions balance an object remains suspended in space and weightless. (b) When forces from opposite directions are unequal, an object is pushed by the stronger force towards the weaker force. A free object moves while a stationary object gains weight. (c) On earth, negative heat particles in the mantle lower the positive force from below and objects are pushed down from above. The difference between forces determines weight; larger difference is heavier and smaller difference is lighter. So when matter is heated and absorbs negative heat particles and becomes less positive the difference between opposite forces decreases and so the object should lose weight and become lighter.

In traditional physics w=mg. Since mass is conserved and gravity is a constant, weight should not change at increasing temperatures.

Image:Gravity1.jpg

A fuller description of gravity on earth. At close proximity to the earth an object (+1) is attracted to the negative mantle (-1) more strongly than is repelled by the positive core (+2). At longer distances the object is repelled by the core more strongly than is attracted to the mantle. These interactions are superimposed on a cosmological repulsive force (10).

Supporting Research

So I searched the literature and found several papers showing weight of heated metals indeed decreases at increasing temperatures.

Image:Evidence 1 500.gif

This graph shows weight changes of 20 grams metal rod and tube. The metals were cooled by 5.4 degC, placed on the balance, and allowed to warm back up to room temperature. The rod lost 100 micrograms and the tube lost 200 micrograms.

The author proposes ‘’heat convection’’ is responsible for weight reduction. At thermal disequilibrium between air and metals heat flow creates air currents which are responsible for weight reduction. The observation that the tube and the rod changed weight by different amounts support a role for ‘’heat convection’’ in weight reduction. But from this experiment you can NOT tell if a fixed amount, say 50 micrograms, is not due to intrinsic temperature of metals.

Image:Evidence 2 500.gif

This graph is from another paper showing weight of a heated thermal insulator, a dewar vessel, also decreases at incresing temperatures. In this experiment ‘’heat convection’’ was significantly reduced and weight reduction was recorded. This result suggests intrinsic temperature of metals may also have an effect on weight.

The authors of this paper propose temperature decreases the force of gravity. If so, hot objects should fall slower than cold objects and this has to be incorporated into the curvature of space-time and the hot big bang model with explosive consequences. Since heavy and light objects fall at the same rate, my theory predicts hot and cold objects should fall at the same rate too.

Summary

I am looking for scientists to weigh a heated metal in vacuum and find the missing weight predicted by my theory. I am looking for scientists to test the most basic of scientific laws – Conservation of Mass.

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